⒈ The Necklace Expansion

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The Necklace Expansion

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Concerned with the health and happiness of Bostonians restricted to these unhealthy surroundings, the city hired Olmsted to design a park system. The series of parks he designed over the next several years is known as the Emerald Necklace. Each unique "jewel" in the Emerald Necklace—from lovely waterways to botanical gardens to peaceful meadows to tree museums—plays a vital role in linking the citizens of Boston together through nature. Jean West, education consultant, and the Teaching with Historic Places staff edited the lesson.

This lesson is one in a series that brings the important stories of historic places into classrooms across the country. Topics: This lesson could be used in U. Time period: Late 19th century to early 20th century. Standard 1D- The student understands the effects of rapid industrialization on the environment and the emergence of the first conservation movement. Standard A - The student compares similarities and differences in the ways groups, societies, and cultures meet human needs and concerns. Standard C - The student explains and give examples of how language, literature, the arts, architecture, other artifacts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behaviors contribute to the development and transmission of culture.

Standard C - The student identifies and describes selected historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, such as the rise of civilizations, the development of transportation systems, the growth and breakdown of colonial systems, and others. Standard F - The student uses knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with methods of historical inquiry, to inform decision-making about and action-taking on public issues.

Standard A - The student elaborates mental maps of locales, regions, and the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape. Standard B - The student creates, interprets, uses, and distinguishes various representations of the earth, such as maps, globes, and photographs. Standard C - The student uses appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic tools such as aerial photographs, satellite images, geographic information systems GIS , map projections, and cartography to generate, manipulate, and interprets information such as atlases, data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, and maps.

Standard D - The student estimates distance, calculate scale, and distinguish's other geographic relationships such as population density and spatial distribution patterns. Standard E - The student locates and describes varying land forms and geographic features, such as mountains, plateaus, islands, rain forests, deserts, and oceans, and explain their relationships within the ecosystem. Standard G - The student describes how people creates places that reflect cultural values and ideals as they build neighborhoods, parks, shopping centers, and the like. Standard H - The student examine, interprets, and analyze physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as land uses, settlement patterns, cultural transmission of customs and ideas, and ecosystem changes.

Standard I - The student describes ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings. Standard B - The student describes personal connections to places associated with community, nation, and world. Standard E - The student identifies and describes ways regional, ethnic, and national cultures influence individuals daily lives. Standard F - The student identifies and describes the influence of perception, attitudes, values, and beliefs on personal identity. Standard F - The student describes the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change.

Standard G - The student applies knowledge of how groups and institutions work to meet individual needs and promote the common good. Standard F - The student explains and illustrate how values and beliefs influence different economic decisions. Standard B - The student shows through specific examples how science and technology have changed people's perceptions of the social and natural world, such as in their relationship to the land, animal life, family life, and economic needs, wants, and security.

Standard F -The student demonstrate understanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflicts related to universal human rights. Standard D - The student practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic. Standard E - The student explain and analyze various forms of citizen action that influence public policy decisions. Standard I - The student explain the relationship between policy statements and action plans used to address issues of public concern. The materials listed below either can be used directly on the computer or can be printed out, photocopied, and distributed to students. The maps and images appear twice: in a smaller, low-resolution version with associated questions and alone in a larger version.

Visitors to Boston may visit the Emerald Necklace park system independently or participate in walks or bicycle rides led by a Boston Park Ranger. Boston Park Rangers also offer a variety of other historical and environmental programs within the Emerald Necklace park system. In , the city of Boston was an overcrowded, noisy, and dirty place. Its population had expanded rapidly because of the Industrial Revolution, and the peninsular port city was crammed with buildings and people.

Many of the people who lived in the crowded city did not have the opportunity to travel to the country for fresh air and relaxation. The park commissioners turned to Frederick Law Olmsted, the landscape architect who had created New York City's Central Park, to plan a park system for the city that would provide residents with an opportunity to enjoy the benefits of nature.

Frederick Law Olmsted believed that planned parks and open spaces improved the health and disposition of those who endured the claustrophobic and often unsanitary conditions of city life. For Boston, he envisioned a "Green Ribbon" of parks that would encircle the city. Such a system would suit the geography of Boston as well as allow easier access to nature than one large central park.

Over the next several years, he and his firm would create and weave together a series of parks that became known as Boston's Emerald Necklace. National Park Service Few cities have undergone such drastic changes in geography as Boston. Starting as early as , the city began to fill in the shallows near the shore and build such structures as Faneuil Hall, the first open air market place and town meeting hall in Boston. By the s and into the s, hilltops were being scraped and used as landfill. By , the Back Bay, which had been an environmental concern for decades due to sewage dumping, had been filled in. The annexations by Boston of several neighboring communities including Roxbury by and Dorchester by allowed Boston to expand in terms of both population and geographic size.

Following these annexations, Boston could, for the first time, acquire larger tracts of land for development of major parks. Questions for Maps 1 and 2 1. Based on Map 1, what geographical features of Boston limited its ability to expand? What changes in land mass have occurred between and the present? How did these changes occur? How might Boston's history have been different if the Back Bay and other areas had not been filled? How did adding large communities, such as Roxbury and Dorchester, affect Boston's ability to accommodate parks? For years, the only place for Bostonians to escape the crowded conditions of the city was the acre parcel of land known as the Boston Common.

In , the residents of Boston selected a tract of land to serve as a grazing area for cattle and a gathering place for people. It was also decided that no buildings would be constructed on this land without the approval of all citizens. Bostonians made a conscious decision to maintain an open, green space in their new settlement. The Boston Common, now the oldest park in the country, would remain the only open green space in Boston until At the back edge of the Boston Common was Back Bay.

This bay was flooded by the ocean tides twice a day via the Charles River. In , the Roxbury Mill Dam was built, which housed a mill that was designed to take advantage of the tidal waters. This dam cut off the tidal flow of the Atlantic Ocean to the Back Bay area, blocking the cleansing tides that used to wash out the sewage from the bay. However, people continued to dump their raw sewage into the Back Bay creating an awful odor. It was said that this area contained "the foulest marsh and muddy flats to be found anywhere in Massachusetts without a single attractive feature, a body of water so foul that even clams and eels cannot live there, and a place that no one will go within a half mile of in the summertime unless it was absolutely necessary," and in , the Boston Board of Health described it as a "nuisance, offensive and injurious to the large and increasing population residing upon it.

In , the city of Boston began filling in a portion of the Back Bay just beyond the boundaries of the Boston Common. This portion of land became Boston's second park, the Public Garden. The Public Garden added 24 acres of flowers, trees, and a man-made lagoon to Boston's open space. Although the Public Garden was a great improvement to the area, the non-filled parts of Back Bay continued to be a foul-smelling nuisance. In , responding to environmental, health, and population pressures, the State of Massachusetts brought landfill from Needham, Massachusetts and filled in the rest of the Back Bay.

The reclaimed land from Back Bay allowed Boston to grow beyond its original boundaries. Boston's third park, Commonwealth Avenue Mall, was planned as a central green for this newly filled area. It was a long, narrow stretch of green with stately rows of tall elm trees that served as a popular promenade along what became Boston's most elegant street. An report by the Committee on the Improvement of the Public Garden describes how Bostonians were beginning to think about the importance of setting aside more land for parks in spite of the limited amount of land available:.

While other cities are expending fabulous amounts in the improvements of parks, squares, gardens, and promenades, what should we do? To be behind in these matters would not only be discreditable to our city, but positively injurious to our commercial prosperity, and in direct opposition to the wishes of a vast majority of the citizens The area of our city is too small to allow the laying out of large tracts of land for public parks, and it behooves us to improve the small portions that are left to us for such purpose.

Below the seal are three tiny, engraved letters: "TdK". If there is anything to be gleaned from the necklace, you will need to learn about its origins. Perhaps the seal and the initials are a start I am the jeweler who made this necklace. I also am not in the business of handing out information as though it were free. Information is never free, friend. If I am going to help you out, you need to help ME out first.

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