✪✪✪ Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols

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Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols



He conquered most of Northern China in the s. The siege Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols inafter negotiations between the Mongols and the city, but by then the plague had begun Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols work. In Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols a horse threw Genghis Khan to Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols ground, causing internal injuries. Marketing Channel Decisions: A Case Study Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion was a revolt against the Qing dynasty in China, Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols with religious conviction over regional economic conditions, and lasting Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols to Genghis Khan, an illiterate nomad, was a genius at Analysis Of The Film Wag The Dog levels, not least in that Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols achievements, as it were, came from nowhere. These embers Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols hatred would burst into flames Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols in the city of Tana. Human Summary: Negative Effects Of The Mongols, once blamed Government Essay: Why Government Is Necessary? heavily, in reality, contributed only a heir to pride rock of cases.

What if the Mongol Invasions Never Happened?

The following year, he called a meeting of representatives from every part of the territory and established a nation similar in size to modern Mongolia. Having united the steppe tribes, Genghis Khan ruled over some 1 million people. In order to suppress the traditional causes of tribal warfare, he abolished inherited aristocratic titles. He also forbade the selling and kidnapping of women, banned the enslavement of any Mongol and made livestock theft punishable by death.

Moreover, Genghis Khan ordered the adoption of a writing system, conducted a regular census, granted diplomatic immunity to foreign ambassadors and allowed freedom of religion well before that idea caught on elsewhere. After a series of raids, the Mongols launched a major initiative in that brought them to the doorstep of Yinchuan, the Xi Xia capital. Unlike other armies, the Mongols traveled with no supply train other than a large reserve of horses. The army consisted almost entirely of cavalrymen, who were expert riders and deadly with a bow and arrows. At Yinchuan, the Mongols deployed a false withdrawal—one of their signature tactics—and then initiated a siege.

Though their attempt to flood the city failed, the Xi Xia ruler submitted and presented tribute. From to , the outnumbered Mongols ravaged the countryside and sent refugees pouring into the cities. Food shortages became a problem, and the Jin army ended up killing tens of thousands of its own peasants. In the Mongols besieged the capital of Zhongdu now Beijing , and the Jin ruler agreed to hand over large amounts of silk, silver, gold and horses. When the Jin ruler subsequently moved his court south to the city of Kaifeng, Genghis Khan took this as a breach of their agreement and, with the help of Jin deserters, sacked Zhongdu to the ground.

The sultan there had agreed to a trade treaty, but when the first caravan arrived its goods were stolen and its merchants were killed. Despite once again being outnumbered, the Mongol horde swept through one Khwarezm city after another, including Bukhara, Samarkand and Urgench. Skilled workers such as carpenters and jewelers were usually saved, while aristocrats and resisting soldiers were killed. Unskilled workers, meanwhile, were often used as human shields during the next assault. In early a horse threw Genghis Khan to the ground, causing internal injuries. He pressed on with the campaign, but his health never recovered.

He died on August 18, , just before the Xi Xia were crushed. Genghis Khan conquered more than twice as much land as any other person in history, bringing Eastern and Western civilizations into contact in the process. His descendants, including Ogodei and Khubilai, were also prolific conquerors, taking control of Eastern Europe, the Middle East and the rest of China, among other places. The Mongols even invaded Japan and Java before their empire broke apart in the 14th century. And they classified the population of their domain in China into a hierarchy of four groups — with the native Chinese at the bottom. The Mongols, of course, were at the top; then came the non-Han, mostly Islamic population that was brought to China by the Mongols to help them rule; third were the northern Chinese; and at the very bottom of the rung were the southern Chinese.

The Mongol rulers were somewhat distrustful of the Confucian scholar-officials of China because they represented a different path for China than that which they themselves had conceived. These scholars, and other native Chinese, thus were not eligible for some of the top positions in the ruling government. Why did the Mongols begin their conquests? Much of this came from his Buddhist and Christian advisors who influenced his policies. The Muslim world at this time was in no position to resist the Mongol attacks. The Abbasid Caliphate was nothing but a shell of its former self, having no power outside of Baghdad.

Most of Persia was disunited as the Khwarazmian Empire had mostly deteriorated by then. With his giant army of hundreds of thousands, Hulagu did not encounter much resistance. Baghdad had been established in by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur. Throughout its history, it had been the capital of the Muslims, as well as the world in general. The libraries of Baghdad were unrivaled. The House of Wisdom, established soon after the city was built, was a magnet for the most intelligent scientists, thinkers, mathematicians, and linguists of the world. The caliphs were patrons of literature, science, and the arts. Although by the mids much of the glamour and importance of Baghdad was gone.

The caliphs were figureheads more interested in worldly pleasures than serving God through serving the people. The Abbasid army was effectively non-existent, and only served as bodyguards of the caliph. And the scientific achievements of the Muslim world were now centered in places such as Cairo, Muslim Spain, and India. It was at this historic and landmark city that the Mongols arrived in Their army, estimated at over , soldiers, stood before the city that was just a shadow of the great capital of the Muslim world of the s.

The siege began in mid-January and only lasted two weeks. On February 13th, , the Mongols entered the city of the caliphs. A full week of pillage and destruction commenced. The Mongols showed no discretion, destroying mosques, hospitals, libraries, and palaces. The world will never truly know the extent of what knowledge was lost forever when those books were thrown into the river or burned. More important than the books, however, was the loss of life. It is estimated that between , and 1,, people were butchered in that one week of destruction. Baghdad was left completely depopulated and uninhabitable.

It would take centuries for Baghdad to regain any sort of prominence as an important city. After Baghdad, the Mongols continued on westward. They conquered Syria from the Ayyubids, with help from the Armenians and neutrality from the Crusaders. In Palestine they reached the extent of their conquests. This also ensured the safety of the only remaining powerful Muslim empire of the time, the Mamluks. Despite ultimately being unsuccessful in their attempt to destroy Islam, the Mongols left a deep political, economic, and military scar in the heart of the Muslim world.

Entire regions were depopulated.

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