❤❤❤ The Great Migration: The Transformation Of English Colonists

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The Great Migration: The Transformation Of English Colonists



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The Enlightenment , or the Age of Reason, was an intellectual and cultural movement in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason over superstition and science over blind faith. Using the power of the press, Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke, Isaac Newton, and Voltaire questioned accepted knowledge and spread new ideas about openness, investigation, and religious tolerance throughout Europe and the Americas.

Many consider the Enlightenment a major turning point in Western civilization, an age of light replacing an age of darkness. Several ideas dominated Enlightenment thought, including rationalism, empiricism, progressivism, and cosmopolitanism. Rationalism is the idea that humans are capable of using their faculty of reason to gain knowledge. This was a sharp turn away from the prevailing idea that people needed to rely on scripture or church authorities for knowledge. Empiricism promotes the idea that knowledge comes from experience and observation of the world.

Progressivism is the belief that through their powers of reason and observation, humans could make unlimited, linear progress over time; this belief was especially important as a response to the carnage and upheaval of the English Civil Wars in the seventeenth century. In all, Enlightenment thinkers endeavored to be ruled by reason, not prejudice.

The Freemasons were a fraternal society that advocated Enlightenment principles of inquiry and tolerance. Freemasonry originated in London coffeehouses in the early eighteenth century, and Masonic lodges local units soon spread throughout Europe and the British colonies. In he was apprenticed to his brother to work in a print shop, where he learned how to be a good writer by copying the style he found in the Spectator , which his brother printed. At the age of seventeen, the independent-minded Franklin ran away, eventually ending up in Quaker Philadelphia.

Franklin subscribed to deism , an Enlightenment-era belief in a God who created, but has no continuing involvement in, the world and the events within it. In , he established a reading library that became the Library Company of Philadelphia. In , he founded the American Philosophical Society to encourage the spirit of inquiry. In , he provided the foundation for the University of Pennsylvania, and in , he helped found Pennsylvania Hospital. His career as a printer made Franklin wealthy and well-respected. When he retired in , he devoted himself to politics and scientific experiments. His most famous work, on electricity, exemplified Enlightenment principles.

Franklin observed that lightning strikes tended to hit metal objects and reasoned that he could therefore direct lightning through the placement of metal objects during an electrical storm. He published his findings in , in Experiments and Observations on Electricity. This story laid the foundation for the American Dream of upward social mobility. His diplomatic, political, scientific, and business achievements had great effects in many countries. The reach of Enlightenment thought was both broad and deep. Some of the southern tribes had strong links with mainland Europe, especially Gaul and Belgica , and minted their own coins.

The Roman Empire conquered most of Britain in the 1st century, creating the province of Britannia. It is probable that the Britons and Caledonians in the north remained unconquered and Hadrian's Wall became the edge of the empire, but archaeological evidence indicates a Roman presence much further north. A Romano-British culture emerged, mainly in the southeast, and British Latin coexisted with Brittonic. Following the end of Roman rule in Britain during the 5th century, Anglo-Saxon settlement of eastern and southern Britain began. The culture and language of the Britons fragmented, and much of their territory gradually became Anglo-Saxon , while small parts of the northwest became Gaelic.

However, initial areas of Germanic influence coincided with lands linked to tribes from the Celtic-Germanic borderlands in Belgica and the extent to which this cultural change was accompanied by wholesale population changes is still debated. During this time, some Britons migrated to mainland Europe and established significant colonies in Brittany now part of France , the Channel Islands , [5] and Britonia now part of Galicia , Spain. The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Britain seems to come from 4th-century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas , a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles between and BC. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them.

The group included Ireland, which was referred to as Ierne Insula sacra , "sacred island," as the Greeks interpreted it , "inhabited by the race of Hiberni " gens hibernorum , and Great Britain, as insula Albionum , "island of the Albions. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , which was originally compiled by the orders of King Alfred the Great in approximately , and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th century, starts with this sentence: "The island Britain is miles long, and miles broad, and there are in the island five nations: English, Welsh or British, including the Cornish , Scottish, Pictish, and Latin.

The first inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia , and first peopled Britain southward. The British language developed in isolation from Britons closest neighbours the Gaul's. Celtic refers to a shared culture over a wide area of Europe rather than a unified poeple. The Welsh word Brython was introduced into English usage by John Rhys in as a term unambiguously referring to the P-Celtic speakers of Great Britain, to complement Goidel ; hence the adjective Brythonic referring to the group of languages.

In English, the terms "Briton" and British for many centuries originally denoted only the ancient Celtic Britons and their descendants, most particularly the Welsh , Cornish and Bretons , who were seen as heirs to the ancient British people. From the early 16th century, and especially after the Acts of Union , the terms British and Briton could be applied to all inhabitants of the Kingdom of Great Britain , including the English , Scottish and some Irish , or the subjects of the British Empire generally. Thus the area today is called Brittany Br. Breizh , Fr. Bretagne , derived from Britannia. Common Brittonic developed from the Insular branch of the Proto-Celtic language that developed in the British Isles after arriving from the continent in the 7th century BC.

The language eventually began to diverge; some linguists have grouped subsequent developments as Western and Southwestern Brittonic languages. Pictish is now generally accepted to descend from Common Brittonic, rather than being a separate Celtic language. Welsh and Breton survive today; Cumbric and Pictish became extinct in the 12th century. Cornish had become extinct by the 19th century but has been the subject of language revitalization since the 20th century. Ideas about the development of British Iron Age culture changed greatly in the 20th century, and remain in development. Generally, until the early s cultural exchange has tended to replace migration from the continent as the explanation for changes, although Aylesford-Swarling Pottery and the Arras culture of Yorkshire are examples of developments still thought to be linked to migration.

Since the early s, a renewed interest in migration as explanatory model developed, which gained further suppport from the revolutionary developments in DNA-research in the ps. The traditional view that the Celtic Britons originally migrated from mainland Europe in the Iron Age has been questioned by the contention of some scholars that Celtic languages had instead spread north along the Atlantic seaboard during the earlier Bronze Age. By this time Celtic styles seem to have been in decline in continental Europe, even before Roman invasions. Throughout their existence, the territory inhabited by the Britons was composed of numerous ever-changing areas controlled by Brittonic tribes.

The extent of their territory before and during the Roman period is unclear, but is generally believed to include the whole of the island of Great Britain , at least as far north as the Clyde — Forth isthmus , and if the Picts are included as Brittonic speaking people as they more usually are , [24] the entirety of Great Britain and its offshore island groups. The territory north of the Firth of Forth was largely inhabited by the Picts ; little direct evidence has been left of the Pictish language , but place names and Pictish personal names recorded in the later Irish annals suggest it was indeed related to the Common Brittonic language rather than to the Goidelic Gaelic languages of the Irish, Scots and Manx.

The British tribes opposed the Roman legions for many decades, but by 84 AD the Romans had decisively conquered southern Britain and had pushed into Brittonic areas of what would later become northern England and southern Scotland. During the same period Belgic tribes from the Gaelic-Germanic borderlands settled in southern Britain. Caesar asserts the Belgae had first crossed the channel as raiders, only later establishing themselves on the island. In AD, Roman forces pushed north again and began construction of the Antonine Wall , which ran between the Forth—Clyde isthmus, but they retreated back to Hadrian's Wall after only twenty years. Although the native Britons south of Hadrian's Wall mostly kept their land, they were subject to the Roman governors , whilst the Brittonic-Pictish Britons north of the wall probably remained fully independent and unconquered.

The Roman Empire retained control of "Britannia" until its departure about AD , although some parts of Britain had already effectively shrugged off Roman rule decades earlier. An undercurrent of British influence is found in some artefacts from the Roman period, such as the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan , and it appears that it was from this, passing to Ireland in the late Roman and post-Roman period, that the "Celtic" element in Early Medieval Insular art derived. At the same time, some Britons established themselves in what is now called Brittany and the Channel Islands. There they set up their own small kingdoms and the Breton language developed from Brittonic Insular Celtic rather than Gaulish or Frankish.

A further Brittonic colony, Britonia , was also set up at this time in Gallaecia in northwestern Spain. The kingdom of Ceint modern Kent fell in AD. Linnuis which stood astride modern Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire was subsumed as early as AD and became the English Kingdom of Lindsey. Rhegin essentially modern Sussex and eastern Hampshire was likely fully conquered by AD. Gwent was only partly conquered; its capital Caer Gloui Gloucester was taken by the Anglo-Saxons in AD, handing Gloucestershire and Wiltshire to the invaders, while the westernmost part remained in Brittonic hands, and continued to exist in modern Wales.

Caer Lundein , encompassing London , St.

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