➊ The Political Theories Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
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Thomas Hobbes - Introduction to Leviathan - Political Philosophy
Although Hobbes never explicitly stated he was an atheist, many allude to the possibility that he was. Hobbes also touched upon the sovereign's ability to tax in Leviathan , although he is not as widely cited for his economic theories as he is for his political theories. The equality of taxes doesn't depend on equality of wealth, but on the equality of the debt that every man owes to the commonwealth for his defence and the maintenance of the rule of law. He advocated public encouragement of works of Navigation etc.
This immediately raises the question of which scriptures we should trust, and why. If any person may claim supernatural revelation superior to the civil law, then there would be chaos, and Hobbes' fervent desire is to avoid this. Hobbes thus begins by establishing that we cannot infallibly know another's personal word to be divine revelation:. When God speaketh to man, it must be either immediately or by mediation of another man, to whom He had formerly spoken by Himself immediately. How God speaketh to a man immediately may be understood by those well enough to whom He hath so spoken; but how the same should be understood by another is hard, if not impossible, to know. For if a man pretend to me that God hath spoken to him supernaturally, and immediately, and I make doubt of it, I cannot easily perceive what argument he can produce to oblige me to believe it.
This is good, but if applied too fervently would lead to all the Bible being rejected. So, Hobbes says, we need a test: and the true test is established by examining the books of scripture, and is:. So that it is manifest that the teaching of the religion which God hath established, and the showing of a present miracle, joined together, were the only marks whereby the Scripture would have a true prophet, that is to say, immediate revelation, to be acknowledged; of them being singly sufficient to oblige any other man to regard what he saith. Seeing therefore miracles now cease, we have no sign left whereby to acknowledge the pretended revelations or inspirations of any private man; nor obligation to give ear to any doctrine, farther than it is conformable to the Holy Scriptures, which since the time of our Saviour supply the place and sufficiently recompense the want of all other prophecy.
Hobbes then discusses the various books which are accepted by various sects , and the "question much disputed between the diverse sects of Christian religion, from whence the Scriptures derive their authority". To Hobbes, "it is manifest that none can know they are God's word though all true Christians believe it but those to whom God Himself hath revealed it supernaturally". And therefore "The question truly stated is: by what authority they are made law? Unsurprisingly, Hobbes concludes that ultimately there is no way to determine this other than the civil power:. He therefore to whom God hath not supernaturally revealed that they are His, nor that those that published them were sent by Him, is not obliged to obey them by any authority but his whose commands have already the force of laws; that is to say, by any other authority than that of the Commonwealth, residing in the sovereign, who only has the legislative power.
He discusses the Ten Commandments , and asks "who it was that gave to these written tables the obligatory force of laws. There is no doubt but they were made laws by God Himself: but because a law obliges not, nor is law to any but to them that acknowledge it to be the act of the sovereign, how could the people of Israel , that were forbidden to approach the mountain to hear what God said to Moses , be obliged to obedience to all those laws which Moses propounded to them?
Finally: "We are to consider now what office in the Church those persons have who, being civil sovereigns, have embraced also the Christian faith? There is an enormous amount of biblical scholarship in this third part. However, once Hobbes' initial argument is accepted that no-one can know for sure anyone else's divine revelation his conclusion the religious power is subordinate to the civil follows from his logic. The very extensive discussions of the chapter were probably necessary for its time.
The need as Hobbes saw it for the civil sovereign to be supreme arose partly from the many sects that arose around the civil war, and to quash the Pope of Rome's challenge , to which Hobbes devotes an extensive section. By this, Hobbes does not mean Hell he did not believe in Hell or Purgatory  but the darkness of ignorance as opposed to the light of true knowledge. Hobbes' interpretation is largely unorthodox and so sees much darkness in what he sees as the misinterpretation of Scripture. The first is by extinguishing the light of scripture through misinterpretation.
Hobbes sees the main abuse as teaching that the kingdom of God can be found in the church, thus undermining the authority of the civil sovereign. Another general abuse of scripture, in his view, is the turning of consecration into conjuration , or silly ritual. The second cause is the demonology of the heathen poets: in Hobbes's opinion, demons are nothing more than constructs of the brain. Hobbes then goes on to criticize what he sees as many of the practices of Catholicism: "Now for the worship of saints , and images , and relics , and other things at this day practiced in the Church of Rome, I say they are not allowed by the word of God".
The third is by mixing with the Scripture diverse relics of the religion, and much of the vain and erroneous philosophy of the Greeks , especially of Aristotle. Hobbes has little time for the various disputing sects of philosophers and objects to what people have taken "From Aristotle's civil philosophy, they have learned to call all manner of Commonwealths but the popular such as was at that time the state of Athens , tyranny ". At the end of this comes an interesting section darkness is suppressing true knowledge as well as introducing falsehoods , which would appear to bear on the discoveries of Galileo Galilei. Nevertheless, men But what reason is there for it?
Is it because such opinions are contrary to true religion? That cannot be, if they be true. Then let them be silenced, and the teachers punished" — but only by the civil authority. The fourth is by mingling with both these, false or uncertain traditions, and feigned or uncertain history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book by Thomas Hobbes. Frontispiece of Leviathan by Abraham Bosse , with input from Hobbes. Thomas Hobbes : Leviathan. Rogers, G. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN OCLC Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The state of nature is in this way not immoral, but instead amoral.
There is no justice or property, just sane pride. In this lawless, pre-societal condition, there is permit and outright positive freedom. While Hobbes utilizes Laws of Nature in his argumentation, they are not pervasively tying, but rather apply just when one's life is secure. Following his time in Houyhnhnmland, Gulliver begins to see himself as a potential Houyhnhnm, a potentially perfectly reasonable and rational being. However, this state, of course, is not an option for man. The impossibility of perfect reason in man is presented to us clearly when Gulliver attempts to live a life of pure reason.
Pride is not a reasonable trait, it is a vice, one which, hypocritically, Gulliver himself particularly despises. Goodman Brown still appears to have confidence in his own particular good convictions, yet he has lost his confidence in whatever remains of the world to hold these convictions. Goodman Brown 's own particular absence of confidence on the planet has made him unforgiving on the grounds that he accepts no one but malevolence can be sired from detestable and there is nothing that should be possible to transform it. As opposed to seeing the positive qualities in individuals and their activities and excusing their wrongdoings, Goodman Brown just dislikes them and trusts individuals to be fakers.
In all reality, it is Goodman Brown who is the poser since he trusts he can condemn the individuals who sin, yet he doesn 't mull over his own particular sins. Like the light and dark analogy, we cannot distinguish the goodness without evil. Evil came as a result of the selfishness of man. Since everyone is free to do what they want, they give in to their desires such as greed and lust. There is no shadow without light and no light without shadow. Orwell saw malicious in false solidarity, and Niemoller affectionately observed much good in solidarity which stands valid notwithstanding all abhorrent.
Neither man, in fact, was a political researcher by calling, yet both were permeated with the vision to comprehend in extraordinary clearness that socialism and Nazism spoke to radicalism at each side of the railroad-track continuum of political theory, the first at the far left and the second at the far right. How does the Leviathan intend to tackle the problem of behaviorism and human nature which is egoistic and self-centered in order to ensure a peaceful human society wherein people will be law abiding?
Will the absolute power embedded in the sovereign not lead to tyranny, totalitarianism and abuse? This project work tries to tackle some of these questions. This work aims at critically analyzing the concept of the Leviathan. It also attempt to proffer solutions to the problems identified in Hobbes theory. This work studies Hobbes notion of the society and how human beings can live together peacefully in a society. We may ask; how can humans evolve a peaceful system where law and order are properly defined?
This study is significant in the sense that it emphasizes the wider breath of Hobbes conception of the leviathan. His intention is to capture all areas of life with an attempt of reconstructing the society into a better one by proffering the Leviathan. Effort will be made to review and apply his concept of the Leviathan in examining the view of human nature as egoistic and individualistic and how we can evolve a stable and viable society from such a human nature. This project work examines critically the concept of the Leviathan in Hobbes social and political philosophy. It looks into other concepts like the state of nature which led to the postulation of Leviathan.
It advances theory and knowledge by expanding the view of other social contractarians in order to give a balanced view of our topic of study. This research work uses the method of critical analysis to examine the idea of the Leviathan in Hobbes.Notions of Personal Narrative: What I Do With My Depression and injustice or right and wrong will not hav For Hobbes, dividing capacities to judge between different bodies is tantamount to letting the state of nature straight back in. Corporate Behavior. Profit Maximization Strategies For Managers. What is the difference between a The Political Theories Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan and a I Want To Enter The Field Of Education Essay Totalitarian and authoritarian relates to centralized and dictatorial The Political Theories Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan that requires people strictly obey to them and lacking concern for opinions of others Oxford, How to get the most The Political Theories Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan of your English lectures.