① Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family
Community Showcase More. Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family. Sato, Noriko Syriac Christians of the Middle East Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family diaspora employ different terms for self-identification based on conflicting beliefs in the origin and vapour-compression cycle of their Strengths And Weaknesses Of Nike communities. Altria Pendragon Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family.
Writing a Personal Narrative: Brainstorming a Story for Kids
Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account. Altera Attila the Hun. Second Ascension. Third Ascension. Final Ascension. Palmtop Stardust. Formal Outfit. Traveling Outfit. April Fool's. I am the hun and I am a warrior serving the God of War. Altria Pendragon. Travel Journal. Altria Caster : She has no equal. Takes no refuge. No one who understands her. None who can comfort her. She receives no rewards. No goals. No rest. She cannot afford failure, not even a single mistake. Altria Pendragon Alter. Jet Black King of Knights ver.
Shinjuku I have come in response to your summon. Are you the one who is to be my Master? Nasu : Then after defeating [Saber] Lily in battle, Alter would jump on a motorbike in the last scene and ride off into the sunset. Altria Pendragon Saber Lily. Festive Outfit. April Fool's :. Since I am still in training, please call me Saber Lily. I look forward to working with you in the years to come. Lily : "It appears to be a meteorite.
It must have fallen from the sky. No need to worry. I don't detect any radiation, killer viruses, or any other variety of dangerous substances. You two really overreacted. This kind of thing happens all the time, and is completely harmless. This kind of thing happens a lot!? The other Servants say that it doesn't, but when I'm alone it happens pretty often. Arthur Pendragon Prototype. White Rose. Is Merlin here? So that wasn't Merlin? Their voices were very similar so I thought it was her.
Oh my, this world's Merlin is male. I guess that kind of thing happens. Astolfo Saber. Saber, Astolfo! Anyway nice to meet you, dear Master! Silver Butler. Henceforth, I shall become your Servant. I believe that is for the sake of my king. And yet - No, because of that, I offer you this vow, knowing that my manifestation here was truly a miracle: I shall protect you, Master, who fights these brutal battles to defend humanity's future.
No matter how powerful our coming enemies may be Your life I shall protect you till the very end. Beni-Enma, the Tongue-Cut Sparrow. Both rites use Classical Syriac as their liturgical language. Most recently, the post Iraq War and the Syrian Civil War , which began in , have displaced much of the remaining Assyrian community from their homeland as a result of ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists. Because of the emergence of ISIL and the taking over of much of the Assyrian homeland by the terror group, another major wave of Assyrian displacement has taken place.
Assyria is the homeland of the Assyrian people; it is located in the ancient Near East. In prehistoric times, the region that was to become known as Assyria and Subartu was home to Neanderthals such as the remains of those which have been found at the Shanidar Cave. The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture c. The history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur perhaps as early as the 25th century BC. However, many of these early kings would have been local rulers, and from the late 24th century BC to the early 22nd century BC, they were usually subjects of the Akkadian Empire.
The cities of Assur and Nineveh modern day Mosul , which was the oldest and largest city of the ancient Assyrian Empire,  together with a number of other towns and cities, existed as early as the 25th century BC, although they appear to have been Sumerian-ruled administrative centres at this time, rather than independent states. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian Assyro-Babylonian population. In the traditions of the Assyrian Church of the East , they are descended from Abraham 's grandson Dedan son of Jokshan , progenitor of the ancient Assyrians.
Ashur-uballit I overthrew the Mitanni c. Despite the influx of foreign elements, the presence of Assyrians is confirmed by the worship of the god Ashur ; references to the name survive into the 3rd century AD. These kingdoms preserved Assyrian cultural and religious traditions, but latter on would accept Christianity whose main ideas were similar to the central doctrines of Assyrian ideology and religion. Emerging in Sumer c. Around BC, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller. The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian Babylonian and Assyrian and Hittite languages. Most of the archaeological evidence is typical of Anatolia rather than of Assyria, but the use of both cuneiform and the dialect is the best indication of Assyrian presence.
To date, over 20, cuneiform tablets have been recovered from the site. From BC and onward, the Sumerian language was preserved by the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians only as a liturgical and classical language for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes. By the Hellenistic period , the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia. Much of the region would become the Roman province Assyria from to AD following the conquests of Trajan, but after a Parthian-inspired Assyrian rebellion, the new emperor Hadrian withdrew from the short-lived province Assyria and its neighboring provinces in AD.
The majority of the population were Eastern Aramaic speakers. Along with the Arameans, Armenians , Greeks, and Nabataeans , the Assyrians were among the first people to convert to Christianity and spread Eastern Christianity to the Far East in spite of becoming, from the 8th century, a minority religion in their homeland following the Muslim conquest of Persia. In , the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon , the capital of the Sasanian Empire ,  organized the Christians within that empire into what became known as the Church of the East. Its head was declared to be the bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who in the acts of the council was referred to as the Grand or Major Metropolitan, and who soon afterward was called the Catholicos of the East.
Later, the title of Patriarch was also used. Dioceses were organised into provinces , each of which was under the authority of a metropolitan bishop. Six such provinces were instituted in Another council held in declared that the Catholicos of the East was independent of "western" ecclesiastical authorities those of the Roman Empire. Soon afterwards, Christians in the Roman Empire were divided by their attitude regarding the Council of Ephesus , which condemned Nestorianism , and the Council of Chalcedon , which condemned Monophysitism.
All three groups existed among the Syriac Christians, the East Syriacs being called Nestorians and the West Syriacs being divided between the Monophysites today the Syriac Orthodox Church , also known as Jacobites, after Jacob Baradaeus and those who accepted both councils primarily today's Orthodox Church , which has adopted the Byzantine Rite in Greek , but also the Maronite Church , which kept its West Syriac Rite and was not as closely aligned with Constantinople. The Assyrians initially experienced some periods of religious and cultural freedom interspersed with periods of severe religious and ethnic persecution after the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia. Assyrians contributed to Islamic civilizations during the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.
They also excelled in philosophy , science Masawaiyh ,  Eutychius of Alexandria , and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu  and theology such as Tatian , Bardaisan , Babai the Great , Nestorius , and Thomas of Marga and the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrians, such as the long-serving Bukhtishu dynasty. Indigenous Assyrians became second-class citizens dhimmi in a greater Arab Islamic state, and those who resisted Arabisation and conversion to Islam were subject to severe religious, ethnic and cultural discrimination, and had certain restrictions imposed upon them.
They could not own a Muslim slave and had to wear different clothing from Muslims in order to be distinguishable. In addition to the jizya tax, they were also required to pay the kharaj tax on their land which was heavier than the jizya. However they were ensured protection, given religious freedom and to govern themselves in accordance to their own laws. As non-Islamic proselytising was punishable by death under Sharia , the Assyrians were forced into preaching in Transoxiana , Central Asia , India , Mongolia and China where they established numerous churches.
The Church of the East was considered to be one of the major Christian powerhouses in the world, alongside Latin Christianity in Europe and the Byzantine Empire. From the 7th century AD onwards Mesopotamia saw a steady influx of Arabs, Kurds and other Iranian peoples ,  and later Turkic peoples. Assyrians were increasingly marginalized, persecuted, and gradually became a minority in their own homeland.
Conversion to Islam as a result of heavy taxation which also resulted in decreased revenue from their rulers. As a result, the new converts migrated to Muslim garrison towns nearby. Assyrians remained dominant in Upper Mesopotamia as late as the 14th century,  and the city of Assur was still occupied by Assyrians during the Islamic period until the midth century when the Muslim Turco-Mongol ruler Timur conducted a religiously motivated massacre against Assyrians. After, there were no records of Assyrians remaining in Ashur according to the archaeological and numismatic record. From this point, the Assyrian population was dramatically reduced in their homeland.
From the 19th century, after the rise of nationalism in the Balkans , the Ottomans started viewing Assyrians and other Christians in their eastern front as a potential threat. The Kurdish Emirs sought to consolidate their power by attacking Assyrian communities which were already well-established there. Scholars estimate that tens of thousands of Assyrian in the Hakkari region were massacred in when Bedr Khan Beg , the emir of Bohtan , invaded their region.
Being culturally, ethnically, and linguistically distinct from their Muslim neighbors in the Middle East—the Arabs, Persians , Kurds, Turks —the Assyrians have endured much hardship throughout their recent history as a result of religious and ethnic persecution by these groups. After initially coming under the control of the Seljuk Empire and the Buyid dynasty , the region eventually came under the control of the Mongol Empire after the fall of Baghdad in The Mongol khans were sympathetic with Christians and did not harm them. The most prominent among them was probably Isa Kelemechi , a diplomat, astrologer, and head of the Christian affairs in Yuan China.
He spent some time in Persia under the Ilkhanate. The 14th century massacres of Timur devastated the Assyrian people. Timur's massacres and pillages of all that was Christian drastically reduced their existence. At the end of the reign of Timur, the Assyrian population had almost been eradicated in many places. Toward the end of the thirteenth century, Bar Hebraeus , the noted Assyrian scholar and hierarch, found "much quietness" in his diocese in Mesopotamia. Syria's diocese, he wrote, was "wasted. Subsequently, all Assyrians, like with the rest of the ethnicities living in the former Aq Qoyunlu territories, fell into Safavid hands from and on. The Ottomans secured their control over Mesopotamia and Syria in the first half of the 17th century following the Ottoman—Safavid War —39 and the resulting Treaty of Zuhab.
Non-Muslims were organised into millets. Syriac Christians, however, were often considered one millet alongside Armenians until the 19th century, when Nestorian, Syriac Orthodox and Chaldeans gained that right as well. The Aramaic-speaking Mesopotamian Christians had long been divided between followers of the Church of the East , commonly referred to as " Nestorians ", and followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church , commonly called Jacobites. The Maphrian resided at Tikrit until , when he moved to the city of Mosul for half a century, before settling in the nearby Monastery of Mar Mattai still belonging to the Syriac Orthodox Church and thus not far from the residence of the Eliya line of Patriarchs of the Church of the East.
From , the holder of the office was known as the Maphrian of Mosul, to distinguish him from the Maphrian of the Patriarch of Tur Abdin. In , a group of bishops of the Church of the East from the northern regions of Amid and Salmas , who were dissatisfied with reservation of patriarchal succession to members of a single family, even if the designated successor was little more than a child, elected as a rival patriarch the abbot of the Rabban Hormizd Monastery , Yohannan Sulaqa. This was by no means the first schism in the Church of the East.
By tradition, a patriarch could be ordained only by someone of archiepiscopal metropolitan rank, a rank to which only members of that one family were promoted. For that reason, Sulaqa travelled to Rome, where, presented as the new patriarch elect, he entered communion with the Catholic Church and was ordained by the Pope and recognized as patriarch. The title or description under which he was recognized as patriarch is given variously as "Patriarch of Mosul in Eastern Syria";  "Patriarch of the Church of the Chaldeans of Mosul";  "Patriarch of the Chaldeans";    "patriarch of Mosul";    or "patriarch of the Eastern Assyrians", this last being the version given by Pietro Strozzi on the second-last unnumbered page before page 1 of his De Dogmatibus Chaldaeorum ,  of which an English translation is given in Adrian Fortescue's Lesser Eastern Churches.
Before being imprisoned for four months and then in January put to death by the governor of Amadiya at the instigation of the rival patriarch of Alqosh , of the Eliya line ,  he ordained two metropolitans and three other bishops,  thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy: the patriarchal line known as the Shimun line. The area of influence of this patriarchate soon moved from Amid east, fixing the see, after many changes, in the isolated village of Qochanis. The Shimun line eventually drifted away from Rome and in adopted a profession of faith incompatible with that of Rome. Leadership of those who wished communion with Rome passed to the Archbishop of Amid Joseph I , recognized first by the Turkish civil authorities and then by Rome itself A century and a half later, in , headship of the Catholics the Chaldean Catholic Church was conferred on Yohannan Hormizd , a member of the family that for centuries had provided the patriarchs of the legitimist "Eliya line", who had won over most of the followers of that line.
Thus the patriarchal line of those who in entered communion with Rome are now patriarchs of the "traditionalist" wing of the Church of the East, that which in officially adopted the name " Assyrian Church of the East ". In the s many of the Assyrians living in the mountains of Hakkari in the south eastern corner of the Ottoman Empire were massacred by the Kurdish emirs of Hakkari and Bohtan.
The motives for these massacres were an attempt to reassert Pan-Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, resentment at the comparative wealth of the ancient indigenous Christian communities, and a fear that they would attempt to secede from the tottering Ottoman Empire. These attacks caused the death of over thousands of Assyrians and the forced "Ottomanisation" of the inhabitants of villages. The Turkish troops looted the remains of the Assyrian settlements and these were later stolen and occupied by Kurds. Unarmed Assyrian women and children were raped, tortured and murdered. The Assyrians suffered a number of religiously and ethnically motivated massacres throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries,  culminating in the large-scale Hamidian massacres of unarmed men, women and children by Muslim Turks and Kurds in the late 19th century at the hands of the Ottoman Empire and its associated largely Kurdish and Arab militias, which further greatly reduced numbers, particularly in southeastern Turkey.
The most significant recent persecution against the Assyrian population was the Assyrian genocide which occurred during the First World War. This led to a large-scale migration of Turkish-based Assyrian people into countries such as Syria, Iran , and Iraq where they were to suffer further violent assaults at the hands of the Arabs and Kurds , as well as other neighbouring countries in and around the Middle East such as Armenia , Georgia and Russia. Despite being heavily outnumbered and outgunned the Assyrians fought successfully, scoring a number of victories over the Turks and Kurds.
This situation continued until their Russian allies left the war, and Armenian resistance broke, leaving the Assyrians surrounded, isolated and cut off from lines of supply. The sizable Assyrian presence in south eastern Anatolia which had endured for over four millennia was thus reduced significantly by the end of World War I. The majority of Assyrians living in what is today modern Turkey were forced to flee to either Syria or Iraq after the Turkish victory during the Turkish War of Independence. In , Assyrians refused to become part of the newly formed state of Iraq and instead demanded their recognition as a nation within a nation.
During the French mandate period, some Assyrians, fleeing ethnic cleansings in Iraq during the Simele massacre , established numerous villages along the Khabur River during the s. The Assyrian Levies were founded by the British in , with ancient Assyrian military rankings such as Rab-shakeh , Rab-talia and Tartan , being revived for the first time in millennia for this force. The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline,  and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs and Kurds. The Assyrian Levies played a major role in subduing the pro- Nazi Iraqi forces at the battle of Habbaniya in However, this cooperation with the British was viewed with suspicion by some leaders of the newly formed Kingdom of Iraq.
The tension reached its peak shortly after the formal declaration of independence when hundreds of Assyrian civilians were slaughtered during the Simele massacre by the Iraqi Army in August The period from the s through to saw a period of respite for the Assyrians. The regime of President Abd al-Karim Qasim in particular saw the Assyrians accepted into mainstream society. Many urban Assyrians became successful businessmen, others were well represented in politics and the military, their towns and villages flourished undisturbed, and Assyrians came to excel, and be over represented in sports.
The Ba'ath Party seized power in Iraq and Syria in , introducing laws aimed at suppressing the Assyrian national identity via arabization policies. The giving of traditional Assyrian names was banned and Assyrian schools, political parties, churches and literature were repressed. Assyrians were not recognized as an ethnic group by the governments and they fostered divisions among Assyrians along religious lines e.
Assyrian Church of the East vs. In response to Baathist persecution, the Assyrians of the Zowaa movement within the Assyrian Democratic Movement took up armed struggle against the Iraqi government in under the leadership of Yonadam Kanna ,  and then joined up with the Iraqi-Kurdistan Front in the early s. Yonadam Kanna in particular was a target of the Saddam Hussein Ba'ath government for many years.
The Anfal campaign of — in Iraq, which was intended to target Kurdish opposition, resulted in 2, Assyrians being murdered through its gas campaigns. Over 31 towns and villages, 25 Assyrian monasteries and churches were razed to the ground. Some Assyrians were murdered, others were deported to large cities, and their lands and homes then being appropriated by Arabs and Kurds. Since the Iraq War social unrest and chaos have resulted in the unprovoked persecution of Assyrians in Iraq mostly by Islamic extremists both Shia and Sunni and Kurdish nationalists ex. In places such as Dora , a neighborhood in southwestern Baghdad , the majority of its Assyrian population has either fled abroad or to northern Iraq, or has been murdered.
Since the start of the Iraq war, at least 46 churches and monasteries have been bombed. In recent years, the Assyrians in northern Iraq and northeast Syria have become the target of extreme unprovoked Islamic terrorism. There have been reports of atrocities committed by ISIL terrorists since, including; beheadings, crucifixions, child murders, rape, forced conversions, ethnic cleansing , robbery, and extortion in the form of illegal taxes levied upon non-Muslims.
Assyrians in Iraq have responded by forming armed militias to defend their territories. In response to the Islamic State's invasion of the Assyrian homeland in , many Assyrian organizations also formed their own independent fighting forces to combat ISIL and potentially retake their "ancestral lands. In Syria, the Dawronoye modernization movement has influenced Assyrian identity in the region. A report stated that Kurdish authorities in Syria, in conjunction with Dawronoye officials, had shut down several Assyrian schools in Northern Syria and fired their administration.
This was said to be because these schooled failed to register for a license and for rejecting the new curriculum approved by the Education Authority. Closure methods ranged from officially shutting down schools to having armed men enter the schools and shut them down forcefully. An Assyrian educator named Isa Rashid was later badly beaten outside of his home for rejecting the Kurdish self-administration's curriculum. Specifically, he had shared numerous photographs on Facebook detailing the closures.
In ancient times, Akkadian -speaking Assyrians have existed in what is now Syria, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon, among other modern countries, due to the sprawl of the Neo-Assyrian empire in the region. Sizable Assyrian populations only remain in Syria , where an estimated , Assyrians live,  and in Iraq , where an estimated , Assyrians live. In Tur Abdin, a traditional center of Assyrian culture, there are only 2, Assyrians left. This sharp decline is due to an intense conflict between Turkey and the PKK in the s. However, there are an estimated 25, Assyrians in all of Turkey, with most living in Istanbul. Most Assyrians currently reside in the West due to the centuries of persecution by the neighboring Muslims.
There are three main Assyrian subgroups: Eastern, Western, Chaldean. These subdivisions are only partially overlapping linguistically, historically, culturally, and religiously. Due to their Christian faith and ethnicity, the Assyrians have been persecuted since their adoption of Christianity. During the reign of Yazdegerd I , Christians in Persia were viewed with suspicion as potential Roman subversives, resulting in persecutions while at the same time promoting Nestorian Christianity as a buffer between the Churches of Rome and Persia.
Persecutions and attempts to impose Zoroastrianism continued during the reign of Yazdegerd II. During the eras of Mongol rule under Genghis Khan and Timur , there was indiscriminate slaughter of tens of thousands of Assyrians and destruction of the Assyrian population of northwestern Iran and central and northern Iran. Since the Assyrian genocide , many Assyrians have left the Middle East entirely for a more safe and comfortable life in the countries of the Western world. As a result of this, the Assyrian population in the Middle East has decreased dramatically. As of today there are more Assyrians in the diaspora than in their homeland. The largest Assyrian diaspora communities are found in Sweden , ,  Germany , ,  the United States 80, ,  and in Australia 46, In Paris , France , the commune of Sarcelles has a small number of Assyrians.
Assyrians in the Netherlands mainly live in the east of the country, in the province of Overijssel. More recently, Syrian Assyrians are growing in size in Sydney after a huge influx of new arrivals in , who were granted asylum under the Federal Government 's special humanitarian intake. Syriac Christians of the Middle East and diaspora employ different terms for self-identification based on conflicting beliefs in the origin and identity of their respective communities. Today, Assyrians and other minority ethnic groups in the Middle East, feel pressure to identify as "Arabs",   "Turks" and "Kurds". In addition, Western media often makes no mention of any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region and simply call them Christians,  Iraqi Christians , Iranian Christians , Christians in Syria , and Turkish Christians , a label rejected by Assyrians.
As early as the 8th century BC Luwian and Cilician subject rulers referred to their Assyrian overlords as Syrian , a western Indo-European corruption of the original term Assyrian. The Greeks used the terms "Syrian" and "Assyrian" interchangeably to indicate the indigenous Arameans , Assyrians and other inhabitants of the Near East, Herodotus considered "Syria" west of the Euphrates. This version of the name took hold in the Hellenic lands to the west of the old Assyrian Empire, thus during Greek Seleucid rule from BC the name Assyria was altered to Syria , and this term was also applied to Aramea to the west which had been an Assyrian colony, and from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant.
It is from this period that the Syrian vs Assyrian controversy arises. The question of ethnic identity and self-designation is sometimes connected to the scholarly debate on the etymology of "Syria". Syria being a Greek corruption of Assyria. Originally published by Tekoglu and Lemaire ,  it was more recently the subject of a paper published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies , in which the author, Robert Rollinger, lends support to the age-old debate of the name "Syria" being derived from "Assyria" see Etymology of Syria. The object on which the inscription is found is a monument belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Hiyawa i. In this monumental inscription, Urikki made reference to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords.
The modern terminological problem goes back to colonial times, but it became more acute in , when with the independence of Syria, the adjective Syrian referred to an independent state. The controversy isn't restricted to exonyms like English "Assyrian" vs. Assyrian culture is largely influenced by Christianity. Main festivals occur during religious holidays such as Easter and Christmas. There are also secular holidays such as Kha b-Nisan vernal equinox. Others are greeted with a handshake with the right hand only; according to Middle Eastern customs, the left hand is associated with evil.
Similarly, shoes may not be left facing up, one may not have their feet facing anyone directly, whistling at night is thought to waken evil spirits, etc. Assyrians are endogamous , meaning they generally marry within their own ethnic group, although exogamous marriages are not perceived as a taboo, unless the foreigner is of a different religious background, especially a Muslim. Therefore, mixed marriage between Assyrians and Armenians is quite common, most notably in Iraq , Iran , and as well as in the diaspora with adjacent Armenian and Assyrian communities.
The Neo-Aramaic languages, which are in the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family , ultimately descend from Late Old Eastern Aramaic , the lingua franca in the later phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, which displaced the East Semitic Assyrian dialect of Akkadian and Sumerian. The Arameans, a semitic people were absorbed into the Assyrian empire after being conquered by them. Ultimately, the Arameans and many other ethnic groups were thought of as Assyrians, and the Aramean language, Aramaic became the official language of Assyria, alongside Akkadian, because Aramaic was easier to write than their original language. To the native speaker, "Syriac" is usually called Surayt , Soureth , Suret or a similar regional variant. Minority dialects include Senaya and Bohtan Neo-Aramaic , which are both near extinction.
All are classified as Neo-Aramaic languages and are written using Syriac script , a derivative of the ancient Aramaic script. Therefore, these "languages" would generally be considered to be dialects of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic rather than separate languages. The Jewish Aramaic languages of Lishan Didan and Lishanid Noshan share a partial intelligibility with these varieties. The mutual intelligibility between the aforementioned languages and Turoyo is, depending on the dialect, limited to partial, and may be asymmetrical. Being stateless , Assyrians are typically multilingual, speaking both their native language and learning those of the societies they reside in. While many Assyrians have fled from their traditional homeland recently,   a substantial number still reside in Arabic-speaking countries speaking Arabic alongside the Neo-Aramaic languages    and is also spoken by many Assyrians in the diaspora.
The most commonly spoken languages by Assyrians in the diaspora are English , German and Swedish. Many loanwords from the aforementioned languages also exist in the Neo-Aramaic languages, with the Iranian languages and Turkish being the greatest influences overall. Only Turkey is reported to be experiencing a population increase of Assyrians in the four countries constituting their historical homeland, largely consisting of Assyrian refugees from Syria and a smaller number of Assyrians returning from the diaspora in Europe. Assyrians predominantly use the Syriac script, which is written from right to left. It is one of the Semitic abjads directly descending from the Aramaic alphabet and shares similarities with the Phoenician , Hebrew and the Arabic alphabets.
The vowel sounds are supplied either by the reader's memory or by optional diacritic marks. Syriac is a cursive script where some, but not all, letters connect within a word. It was used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD. Furthermore, for practical reasons, Assyrian people would also use the Latin alphabet , especially in social media. While there are some atheist Assyrians, they tend to still associate with some denomination. Many members of the following churches consider themselves Assyrian. Ethnic identities are often deeply intertwined with religion, a legacy of the Ottoman Millet system. The group is traditionally characterized as adhering to various churches of Syriac Christianity and speaking Neo-Aramaic languages. It is subdivided into:.
After a death, a gathering is held three days after burial to celebrate the ascension to heaven of the dead person, as of Jesus ; after seven days another gathering commemorates their death. A close family member wears only black clothes for forty days and nights, or sometimes a year, as a sign of mourning. During the " Seyfo " genocide,  there were a number of Assyrians who converted to Islam. They reside in Turkey, and practice Islam but still retain their identity.
Assyrian music is a combination of traditional folk music and western contemporary music genres, namely pop and soft rock , but also electronic dance music. Instruments traditionally used by Assyrians include the zurna and davula , but has expanded to include guitars, pianos, violins, synthesizers keyboards and electronic drums , and other instruments. Assyrian artists that traditionally sing in other languages include Melechesh , Timz and Aril Brikha.
Assyrian-Australian band Azadoota performs its songs in the Assyrian language whilst using a western style of instrumentation. The Synod of Ancyra was held in In the emperor Constantine convoked the first Christian ecumenical council in Nicaea and in moved the capital of the reunified empire to Byzantium also an early Christian center and just across the Bosphorus from Anatolia , later called Constantinople , referred to as the Byzantine Empire , which lasted till Caesarea , on the seacoast just northwest of Jerusalem, at first Caesarea Maritima , then after Caesarea Palaestina , was built by Herod the Great , c. It was there that Peter baptized the centurion Cornelius , considered the first gentile convert. Paul sought refuge there, once staying at the house of Philip the Evangelist , and later being imprisoned there for two years estimated to be 57— The Apostolic Constitutions 7.
At the end of this century a council was held there to regulate the celebration of Easter. Origen d. Pamphilus d. Gregory the Wonder-Worker d. Basil the Great d. Jerome d. The Caesarean text-type is recognized by many textual scholars as one of the earliest New Testament types. Paphos was the capital of the island of Cyprus during the Roman years and seat of a Roman commander. According to Acts, the apostles were persecuted by the Romans but eventually succeeded in convincing the Roman commander Sergius Paulus to renounce his old religion in favour of Christianity.
Barnabas is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church. Damascus is the capital of Syria and claims to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. In the three accounts Acts —20 , —22 , —24 , he is described as being led by those he was traveling with, blinded by the light, to Damascus where his sight was restored by a disciple called Ananias who, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, is thought to have been the first Bishop of Damascus then he was baptized.
Thessaloniki , the major northern Greek city where it is believed Christianity was founded by Paul , thus an Apostolic See , and the surrounding regions of Macedonia , Thrace , and Epirus , which also extend into the neighboring Balkan states of Albania and Bulgaria , were early centers of Christianity. Of note are Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians and to Philippi , which is often considered the first contact of Christianity with Europe. Nicopolis was a city in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus , today a ruin on the northern part of the western Greek coast.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia: "St. Paul intended going there Titus and it is possible that even then it numbered some Christians among its population; Origen c. Ancient Corinth , today a ruin near modern Corinth in southern Greece, was an early center of Christianity. Paul preached successfully at Corinth, where he lived in the house of Aquila and Priscilla Acts , where Silas and Timothy soon joined him. After his departure he was replaced by Apollo , who had been sent from Ephesus by Priscilla. The Apostle visited Corinth at least once more. He wrote to the Corinthians in 57 from Ephesus , and then from Macedonia in the same year, or in The famous letter of St. Clement of Rome to the Corinthian church about 96 exhibits the earliest evidence concerning the ecclesiastical primacy of the Roman Church.
Besides St. Apollo, Lequien II, mentions forty-three bishops: among them, St. Paul, St. Dionysius ; Paul, brother of St. Athens , the capital and largest city in Greece, was visited by Paul. This was about the year While awaiting the coming of these he tarried in Athens, viewing the idolatrous city, and frequenting the synagogue ; for there were already Jews in Athens. It seems that a Christian community was rapidly formed, although for a considerable time it did not possess a numerous membership. The commoner tradition names the Areopagite as the first head and bishop of the Christian Athenians.
Another tradition, however, gives this honour to Hierotheos the Thesmothete. The successors of the first bishop were not all Athenians by lineage. They are catalogued as Narkissos, Publius, and Quadratus. Narkissos is stated to have come from Palestine, and Publius from Malta. In some lists Narkissos is omitted. Quadratus is revered for having contributed to early Christian literature by writing an apology , which he addressed to the Emperor Hadrian.
This was on the occasion of Hadrian's visit to Athens. Aristeides dedicated an apology to the emperor Hadrian around CE Athenagoras also wrote an apology. In the second century there must have been a considerable community of Christians in Athens, for Hygeinos, Bishop of Rome , is said to have written a letter to the community in the year Titus is believed to have been the first bishop. The city was sacked by the pirate Abu Hafs in The spread of Christianity among the Thracians and the emergence of centers of Christianity like Serdica present day Sofia , Philippopolis present day Plovdiv and Durostorum was likely to have begun with these early Apostolic missions.
Cyrene and the surrounding region of Cyrenaica or the North African " Pentapolis ", south of the Mediterranean from Greece, the northeastern part of modern Libya , was a Greek colony in North Africa later converted to a Roman province. In addition to Greeks and Romans, there was also a significant Jewish population , at least up to the Kitos War — According to Mark , Simon of Cyrene carried Jesus' cross. Cyrenians are also mentioned in Acts , , , According to the Catholic Encyclopedia : " Lequien mentions six bishops of Cyrene, and according to Byzantine legend the first was St.
Lucius Acts ; St. Theodorus suffered martyrdom under Diocletian ;" — Exactly when Christians first appeared in Rome is difficult to determine see Godfearers , Proselytes , and History of the Jews in the Roman Empire for the historical background. The Acts of the Apostles claims that the Jewish Christian couple Priscilla and Aquila had recently come from Rome to Corinth when, in about the year 50, Paul reached the latter city,  indicating that belief in Jesus in Rome had preceded Paul.
Historians consistently consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred in Rome under the reign of Nero    in 64, after the Great Fire of Rome which, according to Tacitus , the Emperor blamed on the Christians. However, Irenaeus does not say that either Peter or Paul was "bishop" of the Church in Rome and several historians have questioned whether Peter spent much time in Rome before his martyrdom.
While the church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans to them from Corinth c. There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28 , about 60— Most likely he did not spend any major time at Rome before 58 when Paul wrote to the Romans, and so it may have been only in the 60s and relatively shortly before his martyrdom that Peter came to the capital.
Oscar Cullmann sharply rejected the claim that Peter began the papal succession ,  and concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles , Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession. The original seat of Roman imperial power soon became a center of church authority, grew in power decade by decade, and was recognized during the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils , when the seat of government had been transferred to Constantinople , as the "head" of the church. Rome and Alexandria , which by tradition held authority over sees outside their own province ,  were not yet referred to as patriarchates.
Pope Victor I — was the first ecclesiastical writer known to have written in Latin; however, his only extant works are his encyclicals, which would naturally have been issued in both Latin and Greek. Greek New Testament texts were translated into Latin early on, well before Jerome , and are classified as the Vetus Latina and Western text-type. During the 2nd century, Christians and semi-Christians of diverse views congregated in Rome, notably Marcion and Valentinius , and in the following century there were schisms connected with Hippolytus of Rome and Novatian. The Roman church survived various persecutions.
Among the prominent Christians executed as a result of their refusal to perform acts of worship to the Roman gods as ordered by emperor Valerian in were Cyprian , bishop of Carthage. Carthage , in the Roman province of Africa , south of the Mediterranean from Rome, gave the early church the Latin fathers Tertullian  c. Carthage fell to Islam in The Persecution in Lyon occurred in The Council of Arles in is considered a forerunner of the ecumenical councils. The Ephesine theory attributes the Gallican Rite to Lyon.
The ancient Roman city of Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic Sea , today one of the main archaeological sites of Northern Italy , was an early center of Christianity said to be founded by Mark before his mission to Alexandria. Hermagoras of Aquileia is believed to be its first bishop. The Aquileian Rite is associated with Aquileia. It is believed that the Church of Milan in northwest Italy was founded by the apostle Barnabas in the 1st century. Gervasius and Protasius and others were martyred there. It has long maintained its own rite known as the Ambrosian Rite attributed to Ambrose born c. Duchesne argues that the Gallican Rite originated in Milan.
Peter, after that of Antioch. It also claims that St. Paul preached there. In the times of St. Cyprian the middle of the third century , Christianity certainly flourished at Syracuse, and the catacombs clearly show that this was the case in the second century. According to Acts, Paul was shipwrecked and ministered on an island which some scholars have identified as Malta an island just south of Sicily for three months during which time he is said to have been bitten by a poisonous viper and survived Acts —42 ; Acts —11 , an event usually dated c. AD Many traditions are associated with this episode, and catacombs in Rabat testify to an Early Christian community on the islands.
According to tradition, Publius , the Roman Governor of Malta at the time of Saint Paul's shipwreck, became the first Bishop of Malta following his conversion to Christianity. There is scant information about the continuity of Christianity in Malta in subsequent years, although tradition has it that there was a continuous line of bishops from the days of St. Paul to the time of Emperor Constantine. Salona , the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea , was an early center of Christianity and today is a ruin in modern Croatia. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia it was where: " Titus the pupil of St.
Paul preached, where the followers of Jesus Christ first shed their blood as martyrs, and where beautiful examples of basilicas and other early Christian sculpture have been discovered. In Pannonia St. The cruel persecution under Diocletian , who was a Dalmatian by birth, left numerous traces in Old Dalmatia and Pannonia. Quirinus, Bishop of Siscia , died a martyr A. Jerome was born in Strido , a city on the border of Pannonia and Dalmatia. Seville was the capital of Hispania Baetica or the Roman province of southern Spain. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia : " Gerontius, Bishop of Italica about four miles from Hispalis or Seville , preached in Baetica in Apostolic times, and without doubt must have left a pastor of its own to Seville.
It is certain that in , when Sts. Justa and Rufina , the potters, suffered martyrdom for refusing to adore the idol Salambo, there was a Bishop of Seville, Sabinus, who assisted at the Council of Illiberis Before that time Marcellus had been bishop, as appears from a catalogue of the ancient prelates of Seville preserved in the 'Codex Emilianensis', a manuscript of the year , now in the Escorial. When Constantine brought peace to the Church  Evodius was Bishop of Seville; he set himself to rebuild the ruined churches, among them he appears to have built the church of San Vicente, perhaps the first cathedral of Seville. Christianity reached Roman Britain by the third century of the Christian era, the first recorded martyrs in Britain being St.
Gildas dated the faith's arrival to the latter part of the reign of Tiberius , although stories connecting it with Joseph of Arimathea , Lucius , or Fagan are now generally considered pious forgeries. Christianisation intensified and evolved into Celtic Christianity after the Romans left Britain c. It is accepted that Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity as its state religion.Archived Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family the original on A close family member wears only black Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family for forty days and nights, or sometimes a year, as a sign of mourning. Retrieved 11 February Second Ascension. In addition, Western media Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family makes no mention Chaos And Savagery In William Goldings Lord Of The Flies any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region and simply call them Christians,  Iraqi ChristiansIranian ChristiansPersonal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family in European Expansion Into The Americas Analysisand Turkish Christiansa label Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family by Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family. January 19, An Assyrian educator named Isa Personal Narrative: Marriage Life In A Chaldean Family was later badly beaten outside of his home for Weapons Used In Medieval Times the Kurdish self-administration's curriculum.