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If this were true, then one could see during the night just as well as during the day, so Empedocles postulated an interaction between rays from the eyes and rays from a source such as the sun. In about BC, Euclid wrote Optica , in which he studied the properties of light. Euclid postulated that light travelled in straight lines and he described the laws of reflection and studied them mathematically. He questioned that sight is the result of a beam from the eye, for he asks how one sees the stars immediately, if one closes one's eyes, then opens them at night.
If the beam from the eye travels infinitely fast this is not a problem. Despite being similar to later particle theories, Lucretius's views were not generally accepted. Ptolemy c. In ancient India , the Hindu schools of Samkhya and Vaisheshika , from around the early centuries AD developed theories on light. According to the Samkhya school, light is one of the five fundamental "subtle" elements tanmatra out of which emerge the gross elements. The atomicity of these elements is not specifically mentioned and it appears that they were actually taken to be continuous. See Indian atomism. The basic atoms are those of earth prthivi , water pani , fire agni and air vayu Light rays are taken to be a stream of high velocity of tejas fire atoms.
The particles of light can exhibit different characteristics depending on the speed and the arrangements of the tejas atoms. They viewed light as being an atomic entity equivalent to energy. Descartes arrived at this conclusion by analogy with the behaviour of sound waves. Descartes is not the first to use the mechanical analogies but because he clearly asserts that light is only a mechanical property of the luminous body and the transmitting medium, Descartes' theory of light is regarded as the start of modern physical optics. Pierre Gassendi — , an atomist, proposed a particle theory of light which was published posthumously in the s.
Isaac Newton studied Gassendi's work at an early age and preferred his view to Descartes' theory of the plenum. He stated in his Hypothesis of Light of that light was composed of corpuscles particles of matter which were emitted in all directions from a source. One of Newton's arguments against the wave nature of light was that waves were known to bend around obstacles, while light travelled only in straight lines. He did, however, explain the phenomenon of the diffraction of light which had been observed by Francesco Grimaldi by allowing that a light particle could create a localised wave in the aether. Newton's theory could be used to predict the reflection of light, but could only explain refraction by incorrectly assuming that light accelerated upon entering a denser medium because the gravitational pull was greater.
Newton published the final version of his theory in his Opticks of His reputation helped the particle theory of light to hold sway during the 18th century. The particle theory of light led Laplace to argue that a body could be so massive that light could not escape from it. In other words, it would become what is now called a black hole. Laplace withdrew his suggestion later, after a wave theory of light became firmly established as the model for light as has been explained, neither a particle or wave theory is fully correct.
A translation of Newton's essay on light appears in The large scale structure of space-time , by Stephen Hawking and George F. The fact that light could be polarized was for the first time qualitatively explained by Newton using the particle theory. Jean-Baptiste Biot in showed that this theory explained all known phenomena of light polarization. At that time the polarization was considered as the proof of the particle theory. To explain the origin of colours , Robert Hooke — developed a "pulse theory" and compared the spreading of light to that of waves in water in his work Micrographia "Observation IX". In Hooke suggested that light's vibrations could be perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Christiaan Huygens — worked out a mathematical wave theory of light in and published it in his Treatise on light in He proposed that light was emitted in all directions as a series of waves in a medium called the luminiferous aether.
As waves are not affected by gravity, it was assumed that they slowed down upon entering a denser medium. The wave theory predicted that light waves could interfere with each other like sound waves as noted around by Thomas Young. Young showed by means of a diffraction experiment that light behaved as waves. He also proposed that different colours were caused by different wavelengths of light and explained colour vision in terms of three-coloured receptors in the eye.
Another supporter of the wave theory was Leonhard Euler. He argued in Nova theoria lucis et colorum that diffraction could more easily be explained by a wave theory. The weakness of the wave theory was that light waves, like sound waves, would need a medium for transmission. The existence of the hypothetical substance luminiferous aether proposed by Huygens in was cast into strong doubt in the late nineteenth century by the Michelson—Morley experiment. Newton's corpuscular theory implied that light would travel faster in a denser medium, while the wave theory of Huygens and others implied the opposite.
At that time, the speed of light could not be measured accurately enough to decide which theory was correct. In , Michael Faraday discovered that the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light is rotated when the light rays travel along the magnetic field direction in the presence of a transparent dielectric , an effect now known as Faraday rotation. In he speculated that light might be some form of disturbance propagating along magnetic field lines. Faraday's work inspired James Clerk Maxwell to study electromagnetic radiation and light. Maxwell discovered that self-propagating electromagnetic waves would travel through space at a constant speed, which happened to be equal to the previously measured speed of light. From this, Maxwell concluded that light was a form of electromagnetic radiation: he first stated this result in in On Physical Lines of Force.
In , he published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism , which contained a full mathematical description of the behavior of electric and magnetic fields, still known as Maxwell's equations. Soon after, Heinrich Hertz confirmed Maxwell's theory experimentally by generating and detecting radio waves in the laboratory and demonstrating that these waves behaved exactly like visible light, exhibiting properties such as reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference.
Maxwell's theory and Hertz's experiments led directly to the development of modern radio, radar, television, electromagnetic imaging and wireless communications. In the quantum theory, photons are seen as wave packets of the waves described in the classical theory of Maxwell. The quantum theory was needed to explain effects even with visual light that Maxwell's classical theory could not such as spectral lines. In Max Planck , attempting to explain black-body radiation , suggested that although light was a wave, these waves could gain or lose energy only in finite amounts related to their frequency. Planck called these "lumps" of light energy " quanta " from a Latin word for "how much". In , Albert Einstein used the idea of light quanta to explain the photoelectric effect and suggested that these light quanta had a "real" existence.
In Arthur Holly Compton showed that the wavelength shift seen when low intensity X-rays scattered from electrons so called Compton scattering could be explained by a particle-theory of X-rays, but not a wave theory. In Gilbert N. Lewis named these light quanta particles photons. Eventually the modern theory of quantum mechanics came to picture light as in some sense both a particle and a wave and in another sense , as a phenomenon which is neither a particle nor a wave which actually are macroscopic phenomena, such as baseballs or ocean waves. Instead, modern physics sees light as something that can be described sometimes with mathematics appropriate to one type of macroscopic metaphor particles and sometimes another macroscopic metaphor water waves , but is actually something that cannot be fully imagined.
As in the case for radio waves and the X-rays involved in Compton scattering, physicists have noted that electromagnetic radiation tends to behave more like a classical wave at lower frequencies, but more like a classical particle at higher frequencies, but never completely loses all qualities of one or the other. Visible light, which occupies a middle ground in frequency, can easily be shown in experiments to be describable using either a wave or particle model, or sometimes both. In February , scientists reported, for the first time, the discovery of a new form of light, which may involve polaritons , that could be useful in the development of quantum computers. Sunlight provides the energy that green plants use to create sugars mostly in the form of starches , which release energy into the living things that digest them.
This process of photosynthesis provides virtually all the energy used by living things. Some species of animals generate their own light, a process called bioluminescence. For example, fireflies use light to locate mates and vampire squid use it to hide themselves from prey. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electromagnetic radiation within the range of wavelengths perceptible by human eyes nm. For light that cannot be seen with human eye, see Electromagnetic radiation. For other uses, see Light disambiguation and Visible light disambiguation.
Modern physics. Main article: Electromagnetic spectrum. Main article: Speed of light. Main article: Optics. Main article: Refraction. For the solar energy developer named Lightsource, see Lightsource Renewable Energy. Further information: List of light sources. Main articles: Photometry optics and Radiometry. Table 1. SI radiometry units v t e.
Table 2. SI photometry quantities v t e. Main article: Radiation pressure. Main article: Corpuscular theory of light. Main article: Electromagnetic radiation. Physics portal Science portal. Number CIE, 4th edition. ISBN By the International Lighting Vocabulary , the definition of light is: "Any radiation capable of causing a visual sensation directly. Textbook of Practical Physiology 1st ed. Chennai: Orient Blackswan. Retrieved 11 October The human eye has the ability to respond to all the wavelengths of light from — nm. This is called the visible part of the spectrum. MIT Press. Translated by Robert Mizon. Bibcode : nlu.. Camera lenses: from box camera to digital. SPIE Press. Comprehensive Physics XII. Laxmi Publications.
Introduction to Optics and Lasers in Engineering. Bibcode : iole. Retrieved 20 October Cambridge University Press. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. CRC Press. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Journal of the Optical Society of America. Bibcode : JOSA PMID The foveal sensitivity to several near-infrared laser wavelengths was measured. It was found that the eye could respond to radiation at wavelengths at least as far as 1, nm. A continuous 1, nm laser source appeared red, but a 1, nm pulsed laser source appeared green, which suggests the presence of second harmonic generation in the retina. Color and Light in Nature 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 October Fundamentals of Ecology 3E.
Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved 18 October Normally the human eye responds to light rays from to nm. This can be extended to a range of to 1, nm under artificial conditions. W; MacKay, R. J Statistical Science. MR In Chisholm, Hugh ed. January Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 12 November IEEE Spectrum. S2CID Discover Magazine. F; Hull, G. The Astrophysical Journal. On the development of our views concerning the nature and constitution of radiation. August Nature Physics. ISSN Fundamentals of Optical Engineering. Discovery Publishing House. Mark Smith Diane Publishing. Sabra CUP Archive, p. Understanding Physics. Theoretical Concepts in Physics.
Springer Verlag New York. LCCN Retrieved 17 February Bibcode : Sci PMC Radiation physics and health. Earth's energy budget Electromagnetic radiation Synchrotron radiation Thermal radiation Black-body radiation Particle radiation Gravitational radiation Cosmic background radiation Cherenkov radiation Askaryan radiation Bremsstrahlung Unruh radiation Dark radiation. Radiation syndrome acute chronic Health physics Dosimetry Electromagnetic radiation and health Laser safety Lasers and aviation safety Medical radiography Radiation protection Radiation therapy Radioactivity in the life sciences Radioactive contamination Radiobiology Biological dose units and quantities Wireless device radiation and health Wireless electronic devices and health Radiation heat-transfer.
See also the categories Radiation effects , Radioactivity , Radiobiology , and Radiation protection. Color topics. Color model additive subtractive Color mixing Primary color Secondary color Tertiary color intermediate Quaternary color Quinary color Aggressive color warm Receding color cool Pastel colors Color gradient. Color tool Monochromatic colors Complementary colors Analogous colors Achromatic colors Neutral Polychromatic colors Impossible colors Light-on-dark Tinctures in heraldry. But there is little validity to these accounts as they were written after the fact by people who likely did not know Rasputin as a child, or by people whose opinion had been swayed by their opinion of him as an adult.
Few people living in rural Russia at the time had access to formal education, which led to low literacy rates and poor historical accounts. However, we do know that at some point in his twenties, Rasputin had a wife and several children. But something happened that caused him to suddenly need to leave Pokrovskoye. There are some accounts that he left to escape punishment for stealing a horse, but this has never been verified. Others claim he had a vision from God, yet this has also not been proven. However, after his visit to the St. Nicholas Monastery in Verkhoturye in , Rasputin became a changed man, according to accounts. He began to go on longer and longer pilgrimages, possibly reaching as far south as Greece.
During these years of pilgrimage towards the end of the 19th century, Rasputin began to develop a small following. He would travel to other towns to preach and teach, and when he returned to Pokrovskoye he allegedly had a small group of people with whom he would pray and perform ceremonies. However, elsewhere in the country, especially in the capital, St. Petersburg, Rasputin remained an unknown entity. But a series of fortunate events would change that and propel Rasputin to the forefront of Russian politics and religion. Whether or not he was truly a man gifted with magical talents is a matter for the theologians and philosophers to argue about, but it can be said that he commanded a certain aura of respect when he walked the earth. Specifically, Rasputin arrived in St.
Petersburg at a time of tremendous social upheaval in the Russian Empire. The Tsarist government, which ruled as an autocracy and upheld a system of feudalism that dated back centuries, was beginning to crumble. The urban middle classes, which were developing as a result of the slow process of industrialization that had taken place throughout the 19th century, as well as the rural poor, were beginning to organize and seek out alternative forms of government. This, plus a combination of other factors, meant that the Russian economy was in steady decline by the beginning of the 20th century. Tsar Nicholas II, who was in power from , was insecure about his ability to rule what was obviously a crumbling country, and he had made many enemies amongst the nobility who saw the state of the empire as an opportunity to expand their power, influence, and status.
All of this led to the formation of a constitutional monarchy in , which meant that the Tsar, for the first time ever, would need to share his power with a parliament, as well as a prime minister. This development seriously weakened the power of Tsar Nicholas II, although he retained his position as head of the Russian state. Yet this temporary truce did little to resolve the instability going on in Russia, and when World War I broke out in and the Russians entered the fight, revolution was imminent.
Just one year later, in , 9the war had taken its toll on the weak Russian economy. Food and other crucial resources became scarce, and the working classes grew weak. Tsar Nicholas II took control of the Russian army, but this probably made the situation worse. While all this was taking place, Rasputin managed to become close to the Tsar, and he eventually became a scapegoat for his political rivals as they sought to weaken Nicholas II and improve their own position in society.
Rasputin first arrived in the Russian capital, St. Petersburg, in , after receiving an invitation to visit the St. Petersburg Theological Seminary at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery thanks to a letter of recommendation written by well-respected members of the church elsewhere in Russia. However, when Rasputin arrived to St. Petersburg, he would have found a city in disrepair, which was a reflection of the state of the Russian Empire at the time. He was known to be a heavy drinker and somewhat of a sexual deviant.
In fact, before arriving at St. Petersberg, there were rumors that he had been sleeping with many of his female followers, although there is no definitive proof this was happening. These rumors later led to accusations that Rasputin was a member of the Kyhlyst religious sect, which believed in using sin as the primary means of reaching God. Historians still debate whether this is true or not, although there is considerable evidence that Rasputin enjoyed engaging in activities that one could classify as depraved. After his initial visit to St. Petersberg, Rasputin returned home to Pokrovskoye but began to make more frequent trips to the capital.
During this time, he began making more strategic friendships and built a network within the aristocracy. Thanks to these connections, Rasputin met the Nicholas II and his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna, for the first time in Alexei, the heir to the Russian throne and a young boy, was rather ill due to the fact that he had incurred an unfortunate injury to his foot. Furthermore, Alexei suffered from hemophilia, a disease characterized by anemia and excessive bleeding. After several interactions between Rasputin and Alexei, the imperial family, especially the Tsarina, Alexandra Feodorovna, became convinced that Rasputin alone possessed the powers needed to keep Alexei alive.
Many believe this is why the imperial family became so convinced Rasputin had the power to heal their sick child. Whether or not they thought he had magical powers is unclear, but this belief that Rasputin had some special quality that made him uniquely capable of healing Alexei helped boost his reputation and made him both friends and enemies in the Russian court. One of the theories as to what Rasputin did was that he simply had a calming presence around the boy that caused him to relax and stop thrashing about, something that would have helped stop the bleeding brought on by his hemophilia.
Another theory is that when Rasputin was consulted during a particularly serious moment when Alexei had suffered a hemorrhage, he told the imperial family to keep all doctors away from him. Therefore, by telling Alexandra and Nicholas II to avoid doctors, Rasputin helped Alexei avoid taking medicine that probably would have killed him. Another theory is that Rasputin was a trained hypnotist who knew how to calm the boy enough so that he would stop bleeding. Again, though, the truth remains a mystery. But what we do know is that after this point, the royal family welcomed Rasputin into their inner circle. Alexandra seemed to trust Rasputin unconditionally, and this allowed him to become a trusted advisor of the family.
He was even appointed as the lampadnik lamplighter , which allowed Rasputin to light the candles in the royal cathedral, a position that would have given him daily access to Tsar Nicholas and his family. As Rasputin got closer and closer to the center of Russian power, the public grew more and more suspicious. The nobles and elite within the courts began to view Rasputin with envy due to the fact that he had such easy access to the Tsar, and, seeking to undermine the Tsar, they tried to position Rasputin as a mad man who was controlling the Russian government from behind the scenes. Furthermore, it was around this time that accusations of his associations with the Khylists began to intensify.
It should be noted, though, that some of these accusations were grounded in truth. Rasputin was known for taking many sexual partners, and he was also known for parading around the Russian capital showing off the silks and other textiles that had been embroidered for him by the royal family. They targeted Rasputin more perhaps because they still feared to attack the Tsar directly, choosing instead to attack one of his advisors.
However, the attacks did not only come from the enemies of the Tsar. As a result, they wanted to take out Rasputin so that the public would cease worrying about this supposed crazy monk who was secretly controlling the Russian Empire. The evidence we have seems to suggest that she trusted Rasputin greatly and cared for him. There were rumors that they were lovers, but this has never been proven to be true. However, as public opinion turned against Rasputin and members of the Russian court began to see him as a problem, Alexandra made certain he was permitted to stay. This meant no one knew the real reason why Rasputin had become so close to the Tsar and his family, creating more specualtion and rumors.
For example, by the outbreak of World War I, most people in the Russian empire assumed Rasputin and Alexandra were sleeping together. Soldiers spoke about it at the front as if it were common knowledge. These stories got even more grandiose when people began speaking about how Rasputin was really working for the Germans Alexandra was originally from a German royal family to undermine Russian power and cause Russia to lose the war.
The more time Rasputin spent around the royal family, the more it seemed people tried to tarnish his name and reputation. As mentioned, he was labeled as a drunk and a sexual deviant, and this eventually led to people calling him a wicked man, a crazy monk, and a devil worshipper, although we now know these to be not much more than attempts to make Rasputin a political scapegoat. However, opposition to Rasputin grew enough that an attempt was made to take his life. In , as Rasputin was in transit to the post office, he was accosted by a woman disguised as a beggar and stabbed.
But he managed to escape. The wound was severe and he spent several weeks in recovery after surgery, but he eventually returned to full health, something that would be used to continue to shape public opinion about him even after his death. The woman who stabbed Rasputin was said to be a follower of a man named Iliodor, who had been the leader of a powerful religious sect in St. Iliodor had denounced Rasputin as an antichrist, and he had previously made attempts to try and separate Rasputin from the Tsar. He was never formally accused of the crime, but he did flee St. Petersburg shortly after the stabbing and before the police had the chance to question him. The woman who actually stabbed Rasputin was deemed insane and was not held responsible for her actions.
Historians agree he did the royal family a great service by praying with them and assisting with the ill children and giving advice, but most also agree that he had no real say in what the Tsar did or did not do with his power.In some cases, it may be a Reflection Paper About Moving To America time for some followers and conflicts may emerge given misunderstandings in the different tactics between the new leader and the follower. As an analogy, imagine if Google Reflection Paper About Moving To America allowed people to navigate street by individual street, as well Reflection Paper About Moving To America to teleport to any specific address, but prevented them from zooming out to see a neighborhood, state or country. Reflection Paper About Moving To America autopsy reports do not mention poison Attila The Hun Leader drowning Reflection Paper About Moving To America instead conclude that he College Tuition Should Be Hand Out Essay shot in Patrician Men In Ancient Roman head at Reflection Paper About Moving To America range. In the case Reflection Paper About Moving To America, the Reflection Paper About Moving To America prove that managers Reflection Paper About Moving To America have mattered.