❤❤❤ Cardiovascular System Functions

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Cardiovascular System Functions

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Functions of the CV System - Cardiovascular System 03 - Anatomy \u0026 Physiology

What Are the Parts of the Heart? The heart has four chambers — two on top and two on bottom: The two bottom chambers are the right ventricle and the left ventricle. These pump blood out of the heart. A wall called the interventricular septum is between the two ventricles. The two top chambers are the right atrium and the left atrium. They receive the blood entering the heart. A wall called the interatrial septum is between the atria. The atria are separated from the ventricles by the atrioventricular valves: The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

The mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. Two valves also separate the ventricles from the large blood vessels that carry blood leaving the heart: The pulmonic valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, which carries blood to the lungs. The aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta, which carries blood to the body. What Are the Parts of the Circulatory System?

Two pathways come from the heart: The pulmonary circulation is a short loop from the heart to the lungs and back again. The systemic circulation carries blood from the heart to all the other parts of the body and back again. In pulmonary circulation: The pulmonary artery is a big artery that comes from the heart. It splits into two main branches, and brings blood from the heart to the lungs. At the lungs, the blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide.

The blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. In systemic circulation: Next, blood that returns to the heart has picked up lots of oxygen from the lungs. So it can now go out to the body. The aorta is a big artery that leaves the heart carrying this oxygenated blood. Branches off of the aorta send blood to the muscles of the heart itself, as well as all other parts of the body. Like a tree, the branches gets smaller and smaller as they get farther from the aorta. At each body part, a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries connects the very small artery branches to very small veins. The capillaries have very thin walls, and through them, nutrients and oxygen are delivered to the cells.

Waste products are brought into the capillaries. Capillaries then lead into small veins. Small veins lead to larger and larger veins as the blood approaches the heart. Valves in the veins keep blood flowing in the correct direction. Two large veins that lead into the heart are the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. The terms superior and inferior don't mean that one vein is better than the other, but that they're located above and below the heart. Once the blood is back in the heart, it needs to re-enter the pulmonary circulation and go back to the lungs to drop off the carbon dioxide and pick up more oxygen. How Does the Heart Beat? One complete heartbeat is made up of two phases: The first phase is called systole pronounced: SISS-tuh-lee.

This is when the ventricles contract and pump blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery. During systole, the atrioventricular valves close, creating the first sound the lub of a heartbeat. When the atrioventricular valves close, it keeps the blood from going back up into the atria. Fibers from the SNS innervate tissues in almost every organ system and provide physiological regulation over diverse body processes including pupil diameter, gut motility movement , and urinary output.

The SNS is perhaps best known for mediating the neuronal and hormonal stress response commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, also known as sympatho-adrenal response of the body. This occurs as the preganglionic sympathetic fibers that end in the adrenal medulla secrete acetylcholine, which activates the secretion of adrenaline epinephrine , and to a lesser extent noradrenaline norepinephrine. Therefore, this response is mediated directly via impulses transmitted through the sympathetic nervous system, and also indirectly via catecholamines that are secreted from the adrenal medulla, and acts primarily on the cardiovascular system.

Messages travel through the SNS in a bidirectional flow. Efferent messages can trigger simultaneous changes in different parts of the body. For example, the sympathetic nervous system can accelerate heart rate, widen bronchial passages, decrease motility of the large intestine, constrict blood vessels, increase peristalsis in the esophagus, cause pupillary dilation, piloerection goose bumps and perspiration sweating , and raise blood pressure. Afferent messages carry sensations such as heat, cold, or pain.

Some evolutionary theorists suggest that the sympathetic nervous system operated in early organisms to maintain survival since the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for priming the body for action. One example of this priming is in the moments before waking, in which sympathetic outflow spontaneously increases in preparation for activity. The fight-or-flight response was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. This response was later recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.

Catecholamine hormones, such as adrenaline or noradrenaline, facilitate the immediate physical reactions associated with a preparation for violent muscular action. These include the following:. In prehistoric times, the human fight-or-flight response manifested fight as aggressive, combative behavior and flight as fleeing potentially threatening situations, such as being confronted by a predator.

In current times, these responses persist, but fight-and-flight responses have assumed a wider range of behaviors. For example, the fight response may be manifested in angry, argumentative behavior, and the flight response may be manifested through social withdrawal, substance abuse, and even television viewing. Males and females tend to deal with stressful situations differently. Males are more likely to respond to an emergency situation with aggression fight , while females are more likely to flee flight , turn to others for help, or attempt to defuse the situation tend and befriend. During stressful times, a mother is especially likely to show protective responses toward her offspring and affiliate with others for shared social responses to threats.

The parasympathetic nervous system regulates organ and gland functions during rest and is considered a slowly activated, dampening system. Nerve innervation of the autonomic nervous system : The parasympathetic nervous system, shown in blue, is a division of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system ANS, or visceral nervous system, or involuntary nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, functioning largely below the level of consciousness and controlling visceral functions. The ANS is responsible for regulating the internal organs and glands, which occurs unconsciously. Its roles include stimulation of rest-and-digest activities that occur when the body is at rest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation tears , urination, digestion, and defecation.

Its action is described as being complementary to that of one of the other main branches of the ANS, the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions typically function in opposition to each other. This natural opposition is better understood as complementary in nature rather than antagonistic.

The sympathetic nervous system can be considered a quick response, mobilizing system; and the parasympathetic system is a more slowly activated, dampening system. A useful acronym to summarize the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system is SLUDD salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, and defecation. The parasympathetic nervous system may also be known as the parasympathetic division. The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine ACh as its neurotransmitter, although peptides such as cholecystokinin may act on the PSNS as neurotransmitters. The ACh acts on two types of receptors, the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Most transmission occurs in two stages.

When stimulated, the preganglionic nerve releases ACh at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors of the postganglionic neurons. The postganglionic nerve then releases ACh to stimulate the muscarinic receptors of the target organ. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Two different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with alpha and beta subunits are shown.

The acetylcholine binding sites are indicated by ACh. The sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems cooperatively modulate internal physiology to maintain homeostasis. Describe the interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Some processes that are modulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems but that are not easily labeled as fight or rest include the maintenance of blood pressure when standing and the maintenance of regular heart rhythms. Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions typically function in opposition to each other. However, this opposition is better termed complementary in nature rather than antagonistic.

For an analogy, one may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the brake. The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses. The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction. Consider sympathetic as fight or flight and parasympathetic as rest and digest or feed and breed. The subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system : In the autonomic nervous system, preganglionic neurons connect the CNS to the ganglion. However, many instances of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity cannot be ascribed to fight or rest situations.

Platelets are tiny cellular cardiovascular system functions that cardiovascular system functions together to communication in sport the matrix of blood clots to stop cardiovascular system functions. These include the following:. Sympathetic Cardiovascular system functions System. Examples include: a. With cardiovascular system functions regulations taken into cardiovascular system functions, the body is cardiovascular system functions to maintain core Book Banning Research within cardiovascular system functions two or three degrees Cardiovascular system functions during exercise. How will we evaluate symptomatic congenital heart disease?

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