✯✯✯ The Sociology Of Media

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The Sociology Of Media

The preferred or dominant reading accepts the media content as legitimate, The Sociology Of Media. Transformers: Gender Stereotypes in The Sociology Of Media. Continue shopping. View shopping cart. Reverse On The Rainy River Analysis 1st October The Sociology Of Media, enjoyment is paramount. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Their uses and gratifications model suggests that people use The Sociology Of Media media in The Sociology Of Media to satisfy particular social needs that The Sociology Of Media have, e.


Seeing other global experience allows people to think critically about their own place in the world. However, Thompson notes that the interaction between global media and local cultures can also create tensions and hostilities, e. Every now and then, the media, particularly the tabloid news media, focus on particular groups and activities and, through the style of their reporting, define these groups and their activities as a problem. This focus creates public anxiety and official censure and control. What is a moral panic? It refers to media reactions to particular social groups and activities that are defined as threatening social consensus.

The reporting creates anxiety or moral panic amongst the general population which puts pressure on the authorities to control the problem and discipline the group responsible. However, the media concern is usually out of proportion to any real threat to society posed by the group or activity. Both the publicity and social reaction to the panic may create the potential for further crime and deviance in the future. In other words, the social reaction may lead to the amplification of deviance by provoking more of the same behaviour. Average: 5 1 vote. Skip to main content. Search form. Sign up Log in. Quick revise After studying this section, you should be able to understand: the evidence relating to the relationship between screen violence and violence in real life active audience approaches the process of moral panics Mass media effects: the relationship between screen violence and real-life violence Influential psychologists, pressure groups, religious leaders and politicians have suggested that there is a direct causal link between violence in films, television programmes and computer games and violent real-life crime.

Gerbner sees a cause-effect relationship between screen violence and real-life violence. Some feminist sociologists, e. Dworkin and Morgan have suggested that there is a strong relationship between the consumption of pornography and sexual crime. Orbach and Wolf argue that there is a causal link between representation of US size zero models in magazines and eating disorders. Norris , claims that media coverage of political issues can influence voting behaviour. Some early Marxist commentators, particularly those belonging to the Frankfurt School, such as Marcuse , believed that the media transmitted a mass culture which was directly injected into the hearts and minds of the population making them more vulnerable to ruling class propaganda.

The hypodermic model of media violence The hypodermic syringe approach to media effects believes that a direct correlation exists between the violence and anti-social behaviour portrayed in films, on television, in computer games, in rap lyrics, etc. This is known as catharsis. They suggest that watching an exciting film releases aggressive energy into safe outlets as the viewers immerse themselves in the action. Young , argues that seeing the effects of violence and especially the pain and suffering that it causes to the victim and their families, may make us more aware of its consequences and so less inclined to commit violent acts. Sensitisation to certain crimes therefore may make people more aware and responsible so that they avoid getting involved in violence.

The opinion leader is exposed to the media content. Those who respect the opinion leader internalise their interpretation of that content. However, critics of this model point out two problems. There is no guarantee that the opinion leader has not been subjected to an imitative or desensitising effect, e. People who may be most at risk of being influenced by the media may be socially isolated individuals who are not members of any social network and so do not have access to an opinion leader who might help interpret media content in a healthy way. Selective exposure — the audience must choose to view, read or listen to the content of specific media.

Media messages can have no effect if no one sees or hears them. However, what the audience chooses depends upon their interests, education, work commitments and so on. Selective perception — the audience may not accept the message; some people may take notice of some media content, but decide to reject or ignore others. However, research indicates that most people have a tendency to remember only the things they broadly agree with. Their uses and gratifications model suggests that people use the media in order to satisfy particular social needs that they have, e. Diversion — people may immerse themselves in particular types of media to make up for the lack of satisfaction at work or in their daily lives, e. Some people even have alternative lives and identities as avatars on websites such as Second Life.

Personal relationships — media products such as soap operas may compensate for the decline of community in our lives, e. Cyber-communities on the Internet may also be seen by users as alternative families. Social networking websites, such as Facebook, allow people to use the media to present their particular identities to the wider world in a way that they can control. Surveillance — people use the media to obtain information and news in order to help them make up their minds on particular issues.

The preferred or dominant reading accepts the media content as legitimate, e. This dominant reading is often shared by journalists and editors, and underpins news values. The oppositional reading opposes the views expressed in media content. The negotiated reading whereby the audience reinterpret the media content to fit in with their own opinions and values, e. Moral panics Every now and then, the media, particularly the tabloid news media, focus on particular groups and activities and, through the style of their reporting, define these groups and their activities as a problem. There have been a number of moral panics in the last 30 years including: Ravers and ecstasy use — Redhead notes that a moral panic in regard to acid house raves in the late s led to the police setting up roadblocks on motorways, turning up at raves in full riot gear and the Criminal Justice Act which banned illegal parties.

Refugees and asylum seekers — in there was a moral panic focused on the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers entering Britain and their motives. Elements of the tabloid press, particularly the Daily Mail and The Sun, focused on the alleged links between asylum seekers and terrorism which created public anxiety. Why do moral panics occur? Furedi argues that moral panics arise when society fails to adapt to dramatic social changes and it is felt that there is a loss of control, especially over powerless groups such as the young. Furedi therefore argues that moral panics are about the wider concerns that the older generation have about the nature of society today — people see themselves and their families as at greater risk from a variety of groups.

They believe that things are out of control. Furedi notes that people feel a very real sense of loss, which makes them extremely susceptible to the anxieties encouraged by media moral panics. Some commentators argue that moral panics are simply a product of news values and the desire of journalists and editors to sell newspapers — they are a good example of how audiences are manipulated by the media for commercial purposes. However, after a while, news stories exhaust their cycle of newsworthiness and journalists abandon interest in them because they believe their audiences have lost interest too. The social problems, however, do not disappear — they remain dormant until journalists decide at some future date that they can be made newsworthy again and attract a large audience.

This and similar research has attracted many different names such as cyber-sociology , the sociology of the internet , the sociology of online communities , the sociology of social media , the sociology of cyberculture , or something else again. Digital sociology differs from these terms in that it is wider in its scope, addressing not only the Internet or cyberculture but also the impact of the other digital media and devices that have emerged since the first decade of the twenty-first century. Since the Internet has become more pervasive and linked with everyday life, references to the 'cyber' in the social sciences seems now to have been replaced by the 'digital'. It is beginning to supersede and incorporate the other titles above, as well as including the newest Web 2.

Four aspects of digital sociology have been identified by Lupton : [6]. Although they have been reluctant to use social and other digital media for professional academics purposes, sociologists are slowly beginning to adopt them for teaching and research. Some are writing about the best ways for sociologists to employ social media as part of academic practice see the LSE Impact of the Social Sciences website and the importance of self-archiving and making sociological research open access, [8] as well as writing for Wikipedia.

Digital sociologists have begun to write about the use of wearable technologies as part of quantifying the body [10] and the social dimensions of big data and the algorithms that are used to interpret these data. The ' digital divide ', or the differences in access to digital technologies experienced by certain social groups such as the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those of lower education levels, women and the elderly, has preoccupied many researchers in the social scientific study of digital media.

However several sociologists have pointed out that while it is important to acknowledge and identify the structural inequalities inherent in differentials in digital technology use, this concept is rather simplistic and fails to incorporate the complexities of access to and knowledge about digital technologies. There is a growing interest in the ways in which social media contribute to the development of intimate relationships and concepts of the self. One of the best-known sociologists who has written about social relationships, selfhood and digital technologies is Sherry Turkle. Visual media allows the viewer to be a more passive consumer of information.

This contrast between the digital world or 'cyberspace' and the 'real world', however, has been critiqued as ' digital dualism' , a concept similar to the ' aura of the digital '. The use of social media for social activism have also provided a focus for digital sociology. For example, numerous sociological articles, [20] [21] and at least one book [22] have appeared on the use of such social media platforms as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook as a means of conveying messages about activist causes and organizing political movements.

Research has also been done on how racial minorities and the use of technology by racial minorities and other groups. These " digital practice " studies explore the ways in which the practices that groups adopt when using new technologies mitigate or reproduce social inequalities. Digital sociologists use varied approaches to investigating people's use of digital media, both qualitative and quantitative. These include ethnographic research , interviews and surveys with users of technologies, and also the analysis of the data produced from people's interactions with technologies: for example, their posts on social media platforms such as Facebook, Reddit , 4chan , Tumblr and Twitter or their consuming habits on online shopping platforms.

Such techniques as data scraping , social network analysis , time series analysis and textual analysis are employed to analyze both the data produced as a byproduct of users' interactions with digital media and those that they create themselves. For Contents Analysis, in , Yukihiko Yoshida did a study called [25] "Leni Riefenstahl and German expressionism: research in Visual Cultural Studies using the trans-disciplinary semantic spaces of specialized dictionaries.

The emergence of social media has provided sociologists with a new way of studying social phenomenon. Social media networks, such as Facebook and Twitter , are increasingly being mined for research. Twitter provides researchers with demographic data, time and location data, and connections between users. From these data, researchers gain insight into user moods and how they communicate with one another. Furthermore, social networks can be graphed and visualized. Using large data sets, like those obtained from Twitter, can be challenging. First of all, researchers have to figure out how to store this data effectively in a database.

Several tools commonly used in Big Data analytics are at their disposal. However, there are several options available to researchers. One common option is to use a querying language, such as Hive , in conjunction with Hadoop to analyze large data sets. The Internet and social media have allowed sociologists to study how controversial topics are discussed over time—otherwise known as Issue Mapping. Facebook or Twitter for posts related to a hotly-debated topic, then parse through and analyze the text. MentionMapp shows how popular a hashtag is and Twitter Streamgraph depicts how often certain words are paired together and how their relationship changes over time.

This aspect of digital sociology is perhaps what makes it distinctive from other approaches to studying the digital world. In adopting a critical reflexive approach, sociologists are able to address the implications of the digital for sociological practice itself. It has been argued that digital sociology offers a way of addressing the changing relations between social relations and the analysis of these relations, putting into question what social research is, and indeed, what sociology is now as social relations and society have become in many respects mediated via digital technologies. How should sociology respond to the emergent forms of both 'small data' and 'big data' that are collected in vast amounts as part of people's interactions with digital technologies and the development of data industries using these data to conduct their own social research?

Does this suggest that a "coming crisis in empirical sociology" might be on the horizon? These questions are central to critical digital sociology, which reflects upon the role of sociology itself in the analysis of digital technologies as well as the impact of digital technologies upon sociology.

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