✪✪✪ The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany

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The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany



Many gay men embraced this new culture. He The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany the Reichstag on Imperialism In East Africa Analysis March that Positive Christianity was the "unshakeable foundation of the moral and ethical life The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany our people", promising not to threaten the churches or state institutions if The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany was granted plenary powers. Religious Mobility Nancy Mairs in Nigeria. Nazi employment regulations discriminated against black Germans. The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany account is from Kurt Ansin, a Roma who spent time in Psychology Behind Shame Analysis concentration camps throughout the late s and early The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany.

The secret student resistance to Hitler - Iseult Gillespie

In Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany , the Nazis attempted to eradicate the church ; over 1, Polish clergy died in concentration camps, including Maximilian Kolbe. Jerome assisted the ratlines spiriting fugitive Nazis out of Europe. Although Catholicism in Germany dates back to the missionary work of Columbanus and Saint Boniface in the 6th—8th centuries, Catholics were a minority by the 20th century. Southern and western Germany remained mostly Catholic, and the north and east became mainly Protestant.

Otto von Bismarck 's — Kulturkampf tried to impose Protestant nationalism on the new German Empire, fusing anti-clericalism and suspicion of Catholics whose loyalty presumably lay with Austria and France. The Centre Party, formed in to represent the religious interests of Catholics and Protestants, was transformed by the Kulturkampf into the "political voice of Catholics". The church enjoyed some privilege in Bavaria, the Rhineland, Westphalia and portions of the south-west, but Catholics experienced some discrimination in the Protestant north. The church had six archbishops, 19 bishops and 20, priests during the s, when Catholics made up about one-third of the population. The Centre Party Zentrum was a social and political force in mainly-Protestant Germany, helping to frame the Weimar Constitution and participating in several Weimar Republic coalition governments.

Catholic leaders attacked Nazi ideology during the s and s, and the main Christian opposition to Nazism in Germany came from the church. Into the early s the German Centre Party, the German Catholic bishops, and the Catholic media had been mainly solid in their rejection of National Socialism. They denied Nazis the sacraments and church burials, and Catholic journalists excoriated National Socialism daily in Germany's Catholic newspapers. The hierarchy instructed priests to combat National Socialism at a local level whenever it attacked Christianity. Michael von Faulhaber was appalled by Nazism's totalitarianism, neopaganism and racism and, as Archbishop of Munich and Freising , contributed to the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch.

With ongoing hostility toward the Nazis by the Catholic press and the Centre Party, few Catholics voted Nazi before the party's takeover in Although he was appointed to form a more-conservative ministry on 28 March , he did not have a Reichstag majority. New elections were set for September; Communist and Nazi representation greatly increased, hastening Germany's drift toward a right-wing dictatorship. The church feared Communist conquest or revolution in Europe.

German Christians were alarmed by the militant Marxist—Leninist atheism which took hold in Russia after its revolution , a systematic effort to eradicate Christianity. Communists, initially led by the moderate Kurt Eisner , briefly attained power in Bavaria in This brief, violent experiment in Munich galvanized anti-Marxist and anti-Semitic sentiment among Munich's largely-Catholic population, and the Nazi movement emerged. Communists burst into his residence in search of his car—an experience which contributed to Pacelli's lifelong distrust of Communism. A threat to Bavaria's religious, political, and social life". Nazism could not accept an autonomous establishment whose legitimacy did not spring from the government, and desired the subordination of the church to the state.

Many Nazis suspected Catholics of disloyalty to Germany and supporting "sinister alien forces". Shirer wrote, "Under the leadership of Rosenberg , Bormann and Himmler —backed by Hitler—the Nazi regime intended to destroy Christianity in Germany, if it could, and substitute the old paganism of the early tribal Germanic gods and the new paganism of the Nazi extremists. Hitler retained some regard for the church's organisational power but was contemptuous of its central teachings, which "would mean the systematic cultivation of human failure". Although Hitler occasionally said that he wanted to delay the church struggle and was prepared to restrain his anti-clericalism, his inflammatory remarks to his inner circle encouraged them to continue their battle with the churches.

Germany could not tolerate foreign influences such as the Vatican, and priests were "black bugs" and "abortions in black cassocks". In Hitler's eyes, Christianity was a religion fit only for slaves; he detested its ethics in particular. Its teaching, he declared, was a rebellion against the natural law of selection by struggle and the survival of the fittest. Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels was among the most aggressive anti-church radicals, and prioritized the conflict with the churches. There is, namely, an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic-German world view. Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich headed the Nazi security forces, and were key architects of the Final Solution. They considered Christian values the enemies of Nazism and "eternally the same", wrote Heydrich: "the Jew, the Freemason, and the politically-oriented cleric.

We live in an era of the ultimate conflict with Christianity. It is part of the mission of the SS to give the German people in the next half-century the non-Christian ideological foundations on which to lead and shape their lives. This task does not consist solely in overcoming an ideological opponent but must be accompanied at every step by a positive impetus: in this case, that means the reconstruction of the German heritage in the widest and most comprehensive sense. Himmler saw the main task of his Schutzstaffel SS organisation as "acting as the vanguard in overcoming Christianity and restoring a 'Germanic' way of living" to prepare for the coming conflict between "humans and subhumans"; [68] although the Nazi movement opposed Jews and Communists, "by linking de-Christianisation with re-Germanization, Himmler had provided the SS with a goal and purpose all of its own" [68] and made it a "cult of the Teutons".

Martin Bormann , who became Hitler's private secretary in , was a militant anti-church radical [54] and loathed Christianity's Semitic origins. Church officials were disturbed by Rosenberg's appointment, Hitler's endorsement of Rosenberg's anti-Jewish, anti-Christian, neo-pagan philosophy. The relatively-moderate Kerrl confirmed Nazi hostility to Christianity in an address during an intense phase of the Kirchenkampf :.

National Socialism is the doing of God's will God's will reveals itself in German blood; Zoellner and Count Galen have tried to make clear to me that Christianity consists in faith in Christ as the son of God. That makes me laugh No, Christianity is not dependent upon the Apostles' Creed True Christianity is represented by the party, and the German people are now called by the party and especially the Fuehrer to a real Christianity; He set the movement's violent tone early, forming the paramilitary Sturmabteilung SA. Imprisoned after the Munich Beer Hall Putsch , he used the time to produce Mein Kampf ; he claimed that an effeminate Jewish-Christian ethic was enfeebling Europe, and Germany needed a man of iron to restore itself and build an empire.

Following the Wall Street Crash of , the Nazis and the Communists made substantial gains in the federal election. The Nazis' largest gains were in the northern Protestant, rural towns; Catholic areas remained loyal to the Centre Party. The Social Democrats were a conservative trade-union party with ineffective leadership; the Centre Party maintained its voting bloc but was preoccupied by defending its own interests, and the Communists engaged in violent street clashes with the Nazis.

Moscow had directed the Communist Party to prioritise the destruction of the Social Democrats, seeing them as more dangerous than the German Right who made Hitler their partner in a coalition government. After the July federal elections , the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag. Hitler withdrew his support for Papen, and demanded the chancellorship; Hindenburg refused. The Nazis approached the Centre Party to form a coalition, but no agreement was reached. Papen was to serve as vice-chancellor in a majority-conservative cabinet, falsely believing that he could "tame" Hitler.

German Catholics greeted the Nazi takeover with apprehension, since leading clergy had been warning about Nazism for years. The Nazis began to suspend civil liberties and eliminate political opposition after the Reichstag fire , excluding the Communists from the Reichstag. In the March federal elections , no one party received a majority; Hitler required the Reichstag votes of the Centre Party and the Conservatives. He told the Reichstag on 23 March that Positive Christianity was the "unshakeable foundation of the moral and ethical life of our people", promising not to threaten the churches or state institutions if he was granted plenary powers.

Hitler dangled the possibility of friendly co-operation, promising not to threaten the Reichstag, the president, the states , or the churches if granted emergency powers. With the Nazi paramilitary encircling the building, he said: "It is for you, gentlemen of the Reichstag, to decide between war and peace". The Centre Party, promised non-interference in religion, joined with the conservatives in supporting the act; only the Social Democrats opposed it. Until then, Hindenburg remained commander and chief of the military and retained the power to negotiate foreign treaties. During the winter and spring of , Hitler ordered the wholesale dismissal of Catholic civil servants; [] the leader of the Catholic trade unions was beaten by brownshirts , and a Catholic politician sought protection after SA troopers wounded a number of his followers at a rally.

Two thousand Bavarian People's Party functionaries were rounded up by police in late June , and it ceased to exist by early July. The church concluded eighteen concordats , beginning in the s, under Pius XI to safeguard its institutional rights. Peter Hebblethwaite noted that the treaties were unsuccessful: "Europe was entering a period in which such agreements were regarded as mere scraps of paper". German breaches of the treaty began almost immediately; although the church repeatedly protested, it preserved diplomatic ties with the Nazi government.

From to , the church had limited success negotiating with successive German governments; a federal treaty, however, was elusive. Papen went to Rome on 8 April. Outgoing Centre Party chair Ludwig Kaas, who arrived in Rome shortly before him, negotiated a draft with him on behalf of Pacelli. The bishops saw a 30 May draft as they assembled for a joint meeting of the Fulda led by Breslau 's Cardinal Bertram and Bavarian conferences led by Munich's Michael von Faulhaber. They noted that the Enabling Act established a quasi-dictatorship, and the church lacked legal recourse if Hitler decided to disregard the concordat.

On 14 July , the Weimar government accepted the Reichskonkordat. It was signed six days later by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany; Hindenburg then signed, and it was ratified in September. Article 16 required bishops to take an oath of loyalty to the state; Article 31 acknowledged that although the church would continue to sponsor charitable organisations, it would not support political organisations or causes.

Article 32 gave Hitler what he wanted: the exclusion of clergy and members of religious orders from politics. According to Guenter Lewy , however, members of the clergy could theoretically join or remain in the Nazi Party without violating church discipline: "An ordinance of the Holy See forbidding priests to be members of a political party was never an issue; The Reichskonkordat signified international acceptance of Hitler's government. A threatening, but initially sporadic, persecution of the church followed the Nazi takeover.

Since the vast majority of Germans were either Catholic or Protestant this goal was a long-term rather than short-term Nazi objective". It quickly became clear that [Hitler] intended to imprison the Catholics, as it were, in their own churches. They could celebrate mass and retain their rituals as much as they liked, but they could have nothing at all to do with German society otherwise. Catholic schools and newspapers were closed, and a propaganda campaign against the Catholics was launched. The Nazis promulgated the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring , a sterilization law which was offensive to the church, shortly before the Reichskonkordat was signed.

Days later, the dissolution of the Catholic Youth League began. Most were not moved to face death or imprisonment for the freedom of worship. Impressed by Hitler's early foreign-policy successes and the restoration of the German economy, few "paused to reflect that the Nazis intended to destroy Christianity in Germany, and substitute old paganism of tribal Germanic gods and the new paganism of the Nazi extremists.

Clergy, members of male and female religious orders and lay leaders began to be targeted. Thousands were arrested, often on trumped-up charges of currency smuggling or "immorality". Dissidents were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Protests of the show trials were organised in the United States, including a June petition signed by 48 clergymen including rabbis and Protestant pastors.

Since senior clerics could rely on popular support, the government had to consider the possibility of nationwide protests. Dominican Province of Teutonia provincial and German resistance spiritual leader Laurentius Siemer was influential in the Committee for Matters Relating to the Orders, which formed in response to Nazi attacks on Catholic monasteries to encourage the bishops to oppose the regime more effectively. Germany's Catholic press faced censorship and closure. In March , Joseph Goebbels banned the church press due to a "paper shortage". Dissident writers were terrorized, and the Night of the Long Knives was the culmination of this early campaign.

Poet Ernst Wiechert protested government attitudes toward the arts, calling them "spiritual murder"; he was arrested and interned at Dachau. Declared an enemy of the state in , his newspaper was shut down. Gross was arrested as part of the 20 July plot roundup, and was executed on 23 January In , the Nazi school superintendent of Munster issued a decree that religious instruction be combined with discussion of the "demoralising power" of the "people of Israel".

Parents were coerced into removing their children from Catholic schools. Bavarian teaching positions formerly allotted to nuns were given to secular teachers, and denominational schools became "community schools". Goebbels' attack included a "morality trial" of 37 Franciscans. During the war's first few months, the churches complied; [] no denunciations of the invasion of Poland or the Blitzkrieg were issued. He devised measures to restrict church operations under cover of war-time exigencies such as reducing resources available to church presses on the basis of rationing and prohibiting pilgrimages and large church gatherings due to transportation difficulties. Churches were closed for being "too far from bomb shelters"; bells were melted down, and presses were closed.

Germany's attack on the churches expanded with the war on the Eastern Front. Monasteries and convents were targeted, and expropriation of church properties increased. Nazi authorities falsely claimed that the properties were needed for wartime necessities such as hospitals or accommodations for refugees and children. In January , Hitler appointed the neo-pagan anti-Catholic Alfred Rosenberg as the Reich's cultural and educational leader. According to the program, the German Evangelical Church would control all churches; publication of the Bible would cease, and crucifixes, Bibles and statues of saints on altars would be replaced by with Mein Kampf "to the German nation and therefore to God the most sacred book". The swastika would replace the cross on churches.

The whole international outlook and political interest of the Catholic Church in Spain render inevitable conflict between the Church and Franco regime". According to historian Beth Griech-Polelle, many church leaders "implicitly embraced the idea that behind the Republican forces stood a vast Judeo-Bolshevik conspiracy intent on destroying Christian civilization. Goebbels like Hitler frequently alleged a link between Jewishness and communism, instructing the press to call the Republican side "Bolsheviks" and not mention German military involvement. In August , the German bishops met for their annual conference in Fulda.

They produced a joint pastoral letter about the Spanish Civil War: "Therefore, German unity should not be sacrificed to religious antagonism, quarrels, contempt, and struggles. Rather our national power of resistance must be increased and strengthened so that not only may Europe be freed from Bolshevism by us, but also that the whole civilized world may be indebted to us. Goebbels noted Hitler's mood in his 25 October diary entry: "Trials against the Catholic Church temporarily stopped. Possibly wants peace, at least temporarily.

Now a battle with Bolshevism. Wants to speak with Faulhaber". The church could not accept the law mandating the sterilization of criminals and the handicapped: "When your officials or your laws offend Church dogma or the laws of morality, and in so doing offend our conscience, then we must be able to articulate this as responsible defenders of moral laws". Faulhaber replied that the church would "not refuse the state the right to keep these pests away from the national community within the framework of moral law. Pius XI announced the following day that communism had moved to the head of the list of "errors", and a clear statement was needed. In , Germany began a programme of euthanasia in which those deemed "racially unfit" would be "euthanised".

The pope and the German bishops had previously protested against the eugenics -inspired Nazi sterilization of the "racially unfit". Catholic protests against the escalation of this policy into "euthanasia" began in the summer of Despite Nazi efforts to transfer hospitals to state control, large numbers of disabled people were still under church care. After Protestant welfare activists took a stand at the Bethel Hospital in von Galen's diocese, Galen wrote to Bertram in July urging the church to take a moral position. Bertram urged caution. Wienken cited the Fifth Commandment , warning officials to halt the program or face public church protest.

Although Wienken then wavered, fearing that he might jeopardise his efforts to have Catholic priests released from Dachau, he was urged to stand firm by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber. The government refused to halt the program in writing, and the Vatican declared on 2 December that the policy was contrary to natural and divine law: "The direct killing of an innocent person because of mental or physical defects is not allowed". Arrests of priests and seizure of Jesuit properties by the Gestapo in his home city of Munster convinced Galen that the caution advised by his superior was pointless.

He spoke on 6, 13 and 20 July against the seizure of properties and expulsions of nuns, monks and religious, and criticized the euthanasia programme. The police raided his sister's convent, and detained her in the cellar; she escaped, and Galen made his boldest challenge to the government in a 3 August sermon. He formally accused those responsible for the murders in a letter to the public prosecutor. The policy opened the way to the murder of all "unproductive people", including invalid war veterans; "Who can trust his doctor anymore? The British broadcast excerpts on the BBC German service, dropped leaflets over Germany, and distributed the sermons in occupied countries.

Bishop Antonius Hilfrich of Limburg wrote to the justice minister denouncing the murders, and Bishop Albert Stohr of Mainz condemned the taking of life from the pulpit. Some of the priests who distributed the sermons were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Lichtenberg was arrested, and died en route to Dachau. The encyclical was followed on 26 September by an open condemnation by the German bishops of the killing of "innocent and defenseless mentally handicapped, incurably infirm and fatally wounded, innocent hostages, and disarmed prisoners of war and criminal offenders, people of a foreign race or descent".

They entrusted him to a guardian and continued to pay for his hospital fees. Alfred was deported to an unknown location by the Nazis in and killed. No reason or explanation was offered. He was sterilised without his knowledge under Nazi Rule in Bielefeld, Germany. A photograph of Paul Eggert , whose testimony is available on the previous slide. The Nazis believed that disabled people did not, and could not, be a part of the German master race. Ultimately, this view led to the murder of thousands of disabled people. The Nazis started their oppression of disabled people shortly after their rise to power. This law named nine disabilities and forced anyone with them to be sterilised. These disabilities ranged from severe physical deformity to epilepsy, to chronic alcoholism.

The Nazis justified this law by proclaiming it would allow Germany to achieve racial purity by limiting future disabled generations. They based this view on eugenic research. In the s, eugenics was widely believed to be a legitimate science, which was popular across the world. The Nazis also stressed the government financial savings if the amount of disabled people in Germany decreased. Following the sterilisation programme, the Nazis persecution of the disabled soon escalated.

This programme was code named T-4, after the address of its headquarters Tiergartenstrasse 4. Unlike the sterilisation law, T-4 was never formally announced as the Nazis tried to keep the programme a secret. The programme focused on disabled people living in state-run nursing homes or hospitals. Doctors and nurses in these institutions were asked to complete a questionnaire on each individual patient. The staff in the institutions were told the questionnaire was to collect statistics for the government.

The real purpose of the survey, to establish victims, was concealed. Once identified, the victims were transported on buses to one of the six killing centres: Brandenburg, Gradfeneck, Bernburg, Sonnenstein, Hartheim, Hadamar. Initially, they were murdered via lethal injection. In , this changed to gassing by carbon monoxide gas, as a cheaper and more effective way of mass killing.

Victims were cremated, and their families informed that they had died of natural causes. This procedure provided the Nazis with a blueprint that they would later refine and replicate on a mass scale in extermination camps. Although the programme was carried out in secrecy, it became hard to conceal and soon became public knowledge. There was considerable public and private outrage over the murders. Under pressure from public, Hitler publically ordered a halt to the programme on the 24 August The gassing centres were dismantled and shipped to the new camps in the occupied east. Many of its leadership and supporters were imprisoned and murdered by the Nazis.

In order to ensure total obedience and conformity to their regime, the Nazis suppressed all of their political opponents. Following the Reichstag Fire , Hindenburg declared a state of emergency. The Nazis used this to their advantage in the immediate period following the declaration, rounding up any political opponents and imprisoning them in concentration camps. Concentration camps were built almost immediately after the Nazi rise to power. The primary purpose of these initially was to house political prisoners. Examples of early camps include Oranienburg and Dachau. The awful conditions in the camps forced many prisoners to starve or die of the unsanitary conditions.

Those that were released, primarily in the early period, were forbidden to speak of their experiences, and told to leave Germany immediately. On 6 May , the Nazis led the first physical attack on homosexuals following their rise to power. Students led by members of the SA attacked and looted the Institute of Sexual Research, set up by gay rights pioneer Magnus Hirschfeld in A few days following this, they burned the stolen books in the street. Their attraction to other men meant they were not producing children for the Volksgemeinschaft. Led by Heinrich Himmler , the Nazis persecuted gay men in several ways.

Initially, the Nazis closed down a large majority of the homosexual bars, and shut down any homosexual publications. They arrested gay men and tortured them, forcing them to give up their address books and names of partners in an attempt to create a register of all gay men in Germany. On the 28 June , the Nazis revised Paragraph , a section of the German Criminal Code which banned homosexual contact. This was a crucial turning point in the radicalisation of persecution against homosexuals. Homosexuals were some of the first people, alongside political prisoners, to be sent to the concentration camps in In the camps, they were subject to ridicule and hard work.

They were also forced to wear pink triangles to define them as homosexuals. As with Roma, in the camps homosexuals were also the subject of brutal medical experimentations, such as castration. Elli is listed as being arrested as a Lesbisch — the German word for lesbian. Often the reasons that lesbians were arrested for was also listed as political or asocial. Frieda Belinfante with her partner Henriette Bosmans in their apartment in the late s. Frieda was a Jewish cellist and conductor from Amsterdam who was openly lesbian from the age of sixteen. Following the Nazi invasion of the Netherlands, Frieda worked for the gay resistance group the CKC, arranging for false papers for those persecuted and hunted by the Nazis.

As a Jewish lesbian, Frieda Belinfante was persectuted by the Nazis. Freida actively opposed Nazi rule. In March , she was a key figure in planning of the attempted destruction of the Amsterdam Population Registry, where records of Jews and others picked out for persecution and extermination were kept. Following this attack, and the subsequent executions of many who organised it, Frieda went into hiding.

She often dressed as a boy as pictured to disguise herself from the Nazis. Frieda survived the war and emigrated to the United States. Whilst, in comparison to other persecuted groups, lesbians were able to continue their lives in a relatively normal manner under the Nazis, their activities were oppressed and there were women who suffered under Nazi rule as a result of their sexual orientation. The Nazis did not believe that women were inherently corrupted by their sexuality in the same way that gay men were. Despite this, they did not agree with the concept or act of lesbianism. Some high-ranking Nazis, such as Hans Frank and Rudolf Klare, actively campaigned for more extreme oppression of lesbians, though they were not very successful.

Lesbians were not seen as a threat in the same way that gay men were, due to the small part that they were seen to play in public life. Under the Weimar Republic, lesbian culture had flourished, particularly in Berlin. Following the Nazi rise to power, all publications, societies, and clubs of this kind were banned as Goebbels established his Chamber of Culture. The Nazis did not have a definitive policy to persecute lesbians.

Despite this, there were some lesbians who were either denounced by neighbours or friends or caught by the Nazis in other ways. These women were arrested and often sent to concentration camps, where they were listed as a-social or political prisoners. Due to this ambiguity surrounding the reasons why they were arrested, the approximate number of women who were taken to concentration camps due to this sexual orientation is unknown. Overall, most lesbians, if willing to conform to the Nazi ideas about women, were able to survive the Nazi period and avoid persecution. For example, some women married to avoid attention or attacks regarding their lack of children. Despite this, lesbians were not able to live freely, and were actively subjected to the oppression of their sexuality under the Nazis.

She was married and had a large family, with eleven children. In the late s, all of the family were imprisoned or incarcerated in concentration camps. Hilda, her husband and eight of her children survived. Two of her children, Wilhelm and Wolfgang, were killed at the hands of the Nazis. This is a photograph of Luta Wagemann and her son Robert Wagemann, taken around She was released just a few days before giving birth. When Robert was four, Luta had to take him into hiding for the rest of the war. This was to avoid persecution and potential euthanasia as he was born with a shattered hip he was also considered disabled by the Nazis. Both Luta and Robert survived the war.

This resistance to Hitler and the Nazis was seen as an outright violation by a German citizen, and was not accepted. This suspicion escalated following the outbreak of war. If they refused to fight, work in war industry or show obedience to regime they were arrested and often sent to concentration camps. At the end of the war over 1, had been murdered in the camps. Initially, exceptions were made for those working since August ; German veterans of World War I; and, those who had lost a father or son fighting for Germany or her allies in World War I. April 7, The law regarding admission to the legal profession prohibited the admission of lawyers of non-Aryan descent to the Bar. It also denied non-Aryan members of the Bar the right to practice law.

Exceptions were made in the cases noted above in the law regarding the civil service. Similar laws were passed regarding Jewish law assessors, jurors, and commercial judges. April 22, The decree regarding physicians' services with the national health plan denied reimbursement of expenses to those patients who consulted non-Aryan doctors. Jewish doctors who were war veterans or had suffered from the war were excluded.

April 25, The law against the overcrowding of German schools restricted Jewish enrollment in German high schools to 1. Initially, exceptions were made in the case of children of Jewish war veterans, who were not considered part of the quota. In the framework of this law, a Jewish student was a child with two non-Aryan parents. This question is one of the most difficult to answer.

While Hitler made several references to killing Jews, both in his early writings Mein Kampf and in various speeches during the s, it is fairly certain that the Nazis had no operative plan for the systematic annihilation of the Jews before The decision on the systematic murder of the Jews was apparently made in the late winter or the early spring of in conjunction with the decision to invade the Soviet Union. The first concentration camp, Dachau, opened on March 22, The camp's first inmates were primarily political prisoners e. Communists or Social Democrats ; habitual criminals; homosexuals; Jehovah's Witnesses; and "anti-socials" beggars, vagrants, hawkers.

Others considered problematic by the Nazis e. Jewish writers and journalists, lawyers, unpopular industrialists, and political officials were also included. The following groups of individuals were considered enemies of the Third Reich and were, therefore, persecuted by the Nazi authorities:. To escape the death sentence imposed by the Nazis, the Jews could only leave Nazi-controlled Europe. Every single Jew was to be killed according to the Nazis' plan. In the case of other criminals or enemies of the Third Reich, their families were usually not held accountable.

Thus, if a person were executed or sent to a concentration camp, it did not mean that each member of his family would meet the same fate. In the case of the Jews, it was because of their racial origin, which could never be changed. The explanation of the Nazis' implacable hatred of the Jew rests on their distorted world view which saw history as a racial struggle. They considered the Jews a race whose goal was world domination and who, therefore, were an obstruction to Aryan dominance. They believed that all of history was a fight between races which should culminate in the triumph of the superior Aryan race. Therefore, they considered it their duty to eliminate the Jews, whom they regarded as a threat. Moreover, in their eyes, the Jews' racial origin made them habitual criminals who could never be rehabilitated and were, therefore, hopelessly corrupt and inferior.

There is no doubt that other factors contributed toward Nazi hatred of the Jews and their distorted image of the Jewish people. These included the centuries-old tradition of Christian antisemitism which propagated a negative stereotype of the Jew as a Christ-killer, agent of the devil, and practitioner of witchcraft. Also significant was the political antisemitism of the latter half of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries, which singled out the Jew as a threat to the established order of society.

These combined to point to the Jew as a target for persecution and ultimate destruction by the Nazis. Certain initial aspects of Nazi persecution of Jews and other opponents were common knowledge in Germany. Thus, for example, everyone knew about the Boycott of April 1, , the Laws of April, and the Nuremberg Laws, because they were fully publicized. Moreover, offenders were often publicly punished and shamed. The same holds true for subsequent anti-Jewish measures. Kristallnacht The Night of the Broken Glass was a public pogrom, carried out in full view of the entire population.

While information on the concentration camps was not publicized, a great deal of information was available to the German public, and the treatment of the inmates was generally known, although exact details were not easily obtained. As for the implementation of the "Final Solution" and the murder of other undesirable elements, the situation was different. The Nazis attempted to keep the murders a secret and, therefore, took precautionary measures to ensure that they would not be publicized.

Their efforts, however, were only partially successful. Thus, for example, public protests by various clergymen led to the halt of their euthanasia program in August of These protests were obviously the result of the fact that many persons were aware that the Nazis were killing the mentally ill in special institutions. As far as the Jews were concerned, it was common knowledge in Germany that they had disappeared after having been sent to the East. It was not exactly clear to large segments of the German population what had happened to them. Although the entire German population was not in agreement with Hitler's persecution of the Jews, there is no evidence of any large scale protest regarding their treatment.

There were Germans who defied the April 1, boycott and purposely bought in Jewish stores, and there were those who aided Jews to escape and to hide, but their number was very small. Even some of those who opposed Hitler were in agreement with his anti-Jewish policies. Among the clergy, Dompropst Bernhard Lichtenberg of Berlin publicly prayed for the Jews daily and was, therefore, sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis. Other priests were deported for their failure to cooperate with Nazi antisemitic policies, but the majority of the clergy complied with the directives against German Jewry and did not openly protest. The attitude of the local population vis-a-vis the persecution and destruction of the Jews varied from zealous collaboration with the Nazis to active assistance to Jews.

Thus, it is difficult to make generalizations. The situation also varied from country to country. In Eastern Europe and especially in Poland, Russia, and the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania , there was much more knowledge of the "Final Solution" because it was implemented in those areas. Elsewhere, the local population had less information on the details of the "Final Solution. In every country they occupied, with the exception of Denmark and Bulgaria, the Nazis found many locals who were willing to cooperate fully in the murder of the Jews. This was particularly true in Eastern Europe, where there was a long standing tradition of virulent antisemitism, and where various national groups, which had been under Soviet domination Latvians, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians , fostered hopes that the Germans would restore their independence.

In several countries in Europe, there were local fascist movements which allied themselves with the Nazis and participated in anti-Jewish actions; for example, the Iron Guard in Romania and the Arrow Guard in Slovakia. On the other hand, in every country in Europe, there were courageous individuals who risked their lives to save Jews. In several countries, there were groups which aided Jews, e. The various steps taken by the Nazis prior to the "Final Solution" were all taken publicly and were, therefore, reported in the press.

Once the war began, obtaining information became more difficult, but reports, nonetheless, were published regarding the fate of the Jews. Thus, although the Nazis did not publicize the "Final Solution," less than one year after the systematic murder of the Jews was initiated, details began to filter out to the West. The first report which spoke of a plan for the mass murder of Jews was smuggled out of Poland by the Bund a Jewish socialist political organization and reached England in the spring of The details of this report reached the Allies from Vatican sources as well as from informants in Switzerland and the Polish underground.

Eventually, the American Government confirmed the reports to Jewish leaders in late November They were publicized immediately thereafter. While the details were neither complete nor wholly accurate, the Allies were aware of most of what the Germans had done to the Jews at a relatively early date. The response of the Allies to the persecution and destruction of European Jewry was inadequate. Only in January was an agency, the War Refugee Board, established for the express purpose of saving the victims of Nazi persecution. Prior to that date, little action was taken. On December 17, , the Allies issued a condemnation of Nazi atrocities against the Jews, but this was the only such declaration made prior to Moreover, no attempt was made to call upon the local population in Europe to refrain from assisting the Nazis in their systematic murder of the Jews.

Other practical measures which were not taken concerned the refugee problem. Tens of thousands of Jews sought to enter the United States, but they were barred from doing so by the stringent American immigration policy. Even the relatively small quotas of visas which existed were often not filled, although the number of applicants was usually many times the number of available places.

Conferences held in Evian, France and Bermuda to solve the refugee problem did not contribute to a solution. At the former, the countries invited by the United States and Great Britain were told that no country would be asked to change its immigration laws. Moreover, the British agreed to participate only if Palestine were not considered. At Bermuda, the delegates did not deal with the fate of those still in Nazi hands, but rather with those who had already escaped to neutral lands.

Practical measures which could have aided in the rescue of Jews included the following:. There were "Righteous Among the Nations" in every country overrun or allied with the Nazis, and their deeds often led to the rescue of Jewish lives. Yad Vashem, the Israeli national remembrance authority for the Holocaust, bestows special honors upon these individuals. To date, after carefully evaluating each case, Yad Vashem has recognized approximately 10, "Righteous Gentiles" in three different categories of recognition. The country with the most "Righteous Gentiles" is Poland. The country with the highest proportion per capita is the Netherlands. The figure of 10, is far from complete as many cases were never reported, frequently because those who were helped have died.

Moreover, this figure only includes those who actually risked their lives to save Jews, and not those who merely extended aid. The news of the persecution and destruction of European Jewry must be divided into two periods. The measures taken by the Nazis prior to the "Final Solution" were all taken publicly and were, therefore, in all the newspapers. Once the war began, obtaining information became more difficult, but, nonetheless, reports were published regarding the fate of the Jews. The "Final Solution" was not openly publicized by the Nazis, and thus it took longer for information to reach the "Free World. The response of the Jews in the "Free World" must also be divided into two periods, before and after the publication of information on the "Final Solution.

Unfortunately, the views on how to best achieve these goals differed and effective action was often hampered by the lack of internal unity. Moreover, very few Jewish leaders actually realized the scope of the danger. Following the publication of the news of the "Final Solution," attempts were made to launch rescue attempts via neutral states and to send aid to Jews under Nazi rule. These attempts, which were far from adequate, were further hampered by the lack of assistance and obstruction from government channels. Additional attempts to achieve internal unity during this period failed. Regarding the knowledge of the "Final Solution" by its potential victims, several key points must be kept in mind.

First of all, the Nazis did not publicize the "Final Solution," nor did they ever openly speak about it. Every attempt was made to fool the victims and, thereby, prevent or minimize resistance. Thus, deportees were always told that they were going to be "resettled. Following arrival in certain concentration camps, the inmates were forced to write home about the wonderful conditions in their new place of residence. The Germans made every effort to ensure secrecy. In addition, the notion that human beings--let alone the civilized Germans--could build camps with special apparatus for mass murder seemed unbelievable in those days. Escapees who did return to the ghetto frequently encountered disbelief when they related their experiences.

The Nazis disliked universities, intellectuals Jessica Statskys Essay Children Need To Play the Catholic and Protestant churches. In Buchenwald concentration campsome pink triangle prisoners were subject to inhumane medical The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany. Let us pray to God and for the intercession of Mary In accordance with secret orders The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany Pius, Giovanni Ferrofino obtained visas from The Holocaust: The Role Of Resistance Movements In Nazi Germany Portuguese government and the Dominican Republic to secure the escape of 10, Jews. International The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 Summary Policy. The response to the games was overwhelmingly positive. Relations between the Axis governments and the church varied.

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