⒈ Stalins 5 Year Plans

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Stalins 5 Year Plans



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Stalin's Five Year Plan

While there was great success, there were also many problems with not just the plan itself, but how quickly it was completed. Its approach to industrialization was very inefficient and extreme amounts of resources were put into construction that, in many cases, was never completed. These resources were also put into equipment that was never used, or not even needed in the first place. A major event during the first Five Year-Plan was the famine of — The famine peaked during the winter of '32—'33 claiming the lives of an estimated 3. Although Stalin was aware of this, he placed the blame of the hostility onto the peasants, saying that they had declared war against the Soviet government.

Because of the successes made by the first plan, Stalin did not hesitate with going ahead with the second five-year plan in , although the official start-date for the plan was The second five-year plan gave heavy industry top priority, putting the Soviet Union not far behind Germany as one of the major steel-producing countries of the world. Further improvements were made in communications, especially railways, which became faster and more reliable. As was the case with the other five-year plans, the second was not as successful, failing to reach the recommended production levels in such areas as the coal and oil industries. The second plan employed incentives as well as punishments and the targets were eased as a reward for the first plan being finished ahead of schedule in only four years.

With the introduction of childcare, mothers were encouraged to work to aid in the plan's success. By the tolkachi emerged occupying a key position mediating between the enterprises and the commissariat. Consisent with the Soviet doctrine of state atheism gosateizm , this five-year plan from to also included the liquidation of houses of worship , with the goals of closing churches between — and the elimination of clergy by — As war approached, more resources were put into developing armaments, tanks and weapons, as well as constructing additional military factories east of the Ural mountains.

The first two years of the third five-year plan proved to be even more of a disappointment in terms of proclaimed production goals. The Soviet Union mainly contributed resources to the development of weapons, and constructed additional military factories as needed. By , industrial production was nearly double the level "five-year plans". Stalin's five-year plans helped transform the Soviet Union from an untrained society of peasants to an advanced industrial economy. The USSR at this stage had been devastated by the war. Reconstruction was impeded by a chronic labor shortage due to the enormous number of Soviet casualties in the war between 20 and 30 million. Moreover, was the driest year since , and the harvest was poor.

In , the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Comecon was set up, linking the Eastern bloc countries economically. One-third of the fourth plan's capital expenditure was spent on Ukraine, which was important agriculturally and industrially, and which had been one of the areas most devastated by war. The sixth five-year plan was launched in during a period of dual leadership under Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin , but it was abandoned after two years due to over-optimistic targets. This was merged into a seventh five-year plan in , which was launched with the slogan "catch up and overtake the USA by The plan also intended to establish 18 new institutes by working with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

About The plan's focus was primarily on increasing the amount of consumer goods in the economy so as to improve Soviet standards of living. While largely failing at that objective [16] it managed to significantly improve Soviet computer technology. Leonid Brezhnev declared the slogan "Plan of quality and efficiency" for this period. During the eleventh five-year plan, the country imported some 42 million tons of grain annually, almost twice as much as during the tenth five-year plan and three times as much as during the ninth five-year plan — However, total Soviet export to the West was always almost as high as import: for example, in total export to the West was The last, 12th plan started with the slogan of uskoreniye acceleration , the acceleration of economic development quickly forgotten in favor of a more vague motto perestroika ended in a profound economic crisis in virtually all areas of Soviet economy and a drop in production.

The Law on State Enterprise and the follow-up decrees about khozraschyot and self-financing in various areas of the Soviet economy were aimed at the decentralization to overcome the problems of the command economy. This plan, which would have run until , only lasted about one year due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in State planning of the economy required processing large amounts of statistical data. The Soviet State had nationalized the Odhner arithmometer factory in Saint Petersburg after the revolution. The state began renting tabulating equipment later on.

By , it was a very large user of statistical machines, on the scale of the US or Germany. The State Bank had tabulating machines in 14 branches. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union. Series of nation-wide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union. For other uses, see Pyatiletka disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Leaders President list Vice President. Communist Party. Congress of Soviets Central Executive Committee. He hoped to achieve this through the introduction of new methods of production especially through the increased use of machinery, mainly tractors.

Focused on heavy industry. New dams and hydro-electric plants were built to create the energy needed for the new industries — e. Prioritising heavy industry created problems because there were huge shortage of consumer goods such as clothes. Extraordinary targets set for workers. Targets were set for every industry, each region, each mine and factory, each foreman and even every worker! This was thought necessary because most industrial workers were former peasants, who were used to working at their own speed.

Focus on targets meant managers were more interested in quantity than quality, so there was a lot of waste and a lot of accidents, as safety standards were ignored. Workers were heavily regulated. Workers who took time off were likely to be fined, or to lose their job — and therefore their houses. From workers had to have official permission to change jobs or move area. This probably suggests that some workers were getting restless about the unachievable targets and trying to leave their jobs.

Propaganda campaign urged workers to beat targets. Although the plan was scheduled to last 5 years, propaganda urged workers to complete targets in 4! Stakhanovism campaign. Alexei Stakhanov was a minor who organized his team to cut tons of coal in a shift — his target was 7 tons! He was used as propaganda. Workers who exceeded targets received a medal, or higher wages - Stakhanov workers could earn 1, to 2, rubles or more a month, as compared with the average monthly wage of roubles. But by , the government stopped promoting Stakhanovism, which suggests they knew such propaganda was ineffective.

Enormous increases in production. By had overtaken Britain and Germany in industrial output. Islam was believed to hold back industrialization, so Muslim groups were heavily persecuted between Stalin desired to remove and replace any policies created under the New Economic Policy. The plan, overall, was to transition the Soviet Union from a weak, poorly controlled, agriculture state, into an industrial powerhouse. While the vision was grand, its planning was ineffective and unrealistic given the short amount of time given to meet the desired goals. In , Stalin edited the plan to include the creation of " kolkhoz " collective farming systems that stretched over thousands of acres of land and had hundreds of thousands of peasants working on them.

The creation of collective farms essentially destroyed the kulaks as a class dekulakization. Another consequence of this is that peasants resisted by killing their farm animals rather than turning them over to the State when their farms were collectivized. Public machine and tractor stations were set up throughout the USSR, and peasants were allowed to use these public tractors to farm the land, increasing the food output per peasant. Peasants were allowed to sell any surplus food from the land. However, the government planners failed to take notice of local situations. Agricultural production was so disrupted that famine broke out in several districts.

Because of the plan's reliance on rapid industrialization, major cultural changes had to occur in tandem. As this new social structure arose, conflicts occurred among some of the majority of the populations. In Turkmenistan , for example, the Soviet policy of collectivization shifted their production from cotton to food products. Prior to launching the first Soviet five-year plan, the Soviet Union had been facing threats from external sources as well as experiencing an economic and industrial downturn since the introduction of Bolshevik rule.

The fear of invasion from the West left the Soviets feeling a need for rapid industrialization to increase Soviet war-making potential, and to compete with the Western powers. At the same time as the War Scare of , dissatisfaction grew among the peasantry of the Soviet Union. This dissatisfaction arose from the famine of the early s , as well as from increasing mistreatment of the peasants. The central aspect of the first Soviet five-year plan was the rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union from October to December , which was thought to be the most crucial time for Russian industrialization.

If war were to break out between the Soviet Union and the West, the Soviets would be fighting against some of the most industrialized nations in the world. The rapid industrialization would inhibit fears of being left unprotected if War between the Soviets and the West were to occur. To meet the needs of a possible war, the Soviet leaders set unrealistic quotas for production.

During this period —, massive industrial centers emerged in areas that were highly isolated before. These factories were not only for war production, but to produce tractors to meet the needs of mechanized agriculture. The Stalingrad Tractor Plant was built with the help of western allies and was meant to play a major factor in the rapid industrialization of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. These isolated areas included Magnitogorsk , Dnieper , and Nizhny Novgorod. His plan was to make it a one-industry town. The city would become the largest steel producer in Russia and was meant to rival production that was being seen in the U.

Programs not necessary to heavy industry were cut from the Soviet budget; and because of the redistribution of industrial funding, basic goods, such as food, became scarce. Agricultural collectivization , within Russia, had its origins under Lenin during the New Economic Policy. One reason for the collectivization of Soviet agriculture was to increase the number of industrial workers for the new factories. Vladimir Lenin tried to establish removal of grain from wealthier peasants after the initial failure of state farms but this was also unsuccessful. Peasants were mainly concerned for their own well being and felt that the state had nothing of necessity to offer for the grain. This stockpiling of grain by the peasantry left millions of people in the city hungry, leading Lenin to establish his New Economic Policy to keep the economy from crashing.

NEP was based more on capitalism and not socialism, which is the direction the government wanted to head toward. By , with the rapid industrialization , and mass urbanization that followed, consumption was to increase rapidly as well. Need for urban dwellers to be fed, the FYP increased collectivization, leading to its recognition be largely associated with Stalin. The middle and lower class supported collectivization, because it took private land from individual Kulak's, and distributed it among the serednyak and bednyak's villages.

With the serednyak and bednyak joining collectivization they were also joining a kohloz. The kulaks did not support mass collectivization, as their land was being taken from them as well as their animals. Although Stalin reported in that collectivization was aiding the country, this was the era of exaggeration. Those who did not give up their grain were considered breaking Soviet law, which caused the famine. Death rates are estimated between 6 - 7 million. To meet the goals of the first five-year plan the Soviet Union began using the labor of its growing prisoner population.

Initially the Soviet leaders sought to decrease the number of prisoners in the Soviet Union so that those resources could be rerouted to the five-year plan. Early in the plan, however, the Communist leaders realized the necessity and the benefit of prisoner labor to complete the five-year plan. At this time the Soviet leaders attempted to orchestrate an increase in prison population.

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