⚡ Divided Attention Task
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Divided Attention Task VR
When a driver who is suspected to be impaired by either drugs or alcohol performs either the walk-and-turn test or the one-leg-stand test, the police officer administering the test makes note of various indicators of impairment. As their names imply, both the walk-and-turn test and the one-leg-stand test are simple physical tasks. With the walk-and-turn test, the police officer will instruct you to take nine steps, walking in a heel-to-toe fashion, in a straight line. After completing the nine steps, you are then instructed to turn on one foot and return in the same fashion. With the one-leg stand test, you are required to stand for 30 seconds with one foot approximately six inches off the ground while counting aloud by thousands.
During this test, the police officer looks for such indicators of impairment as the ability to balance without swaying, using arms, hopping or putting a foot down. Broadbent assumed that the filter rejected the unattended message at an early stage of processing. According to Broadbent the meaning of any of the messages is not taken into account at all by the filter. All semantic processing is carried out after the filter has selected the message to pay attention to. So whichever message s restricted by the bottleneck i.
Broadbent wanted to see how people were able to focus their attention selectively attend , and to do this he deliberately overloaded them with stimuli. One of the ways Broadbent achieved this was by simultaneously sending one message to a person's right ear and a different message to their left ear. This is called a split span experiment also known as the dichotic listening task. The dichotic listening tasks involves simultaneously sending one message a 3-digit number to a person's right ear and a different message a different 3-digit number to their left ear.
Participants were asked to listen to both messages at the same time and repeat what they heard. This is known as a 'dichotic listening task'. Broadbent was interested in how these would be repeated back. Would the participant repeat the digits back in the order that they were heard order of presentation , or repeat back what was heard in one ear followed by the other ear ear-by-ear. He actually found that people made fewer mistakes repeating back ear by ear and would usually repeat back this way. Broadbent's theory predicts that hearing your name when you are not paying attention should be impossible because unattended messages are filtered out before you process the meaning - thus the model cannot account for the 'Cocktail Party Phenomenon'.
Other researchers have demonstrated the ' cocktail party effect ' Cherry, under experimental conditions and have discovered occasions when information heard in the unattended ear 'broke through' to interfere with information participants are paying attention to in the other ear. Treisman agrees with Broadbent's theory of an early bottleneck filter. However, the difference is that Treisman's filter attenuates rather than eliminates the unattended material.
In her experiments, Treisman demonstrated that participants were still able to identify the contents of an unattended message, indicating that they were able to process the meaning of both the attended and unattended messages. Treisman carried out dichotic listening tasks using the speech shadowing method. Typically, in this method participants are asked to simultaneously repeat aloud speech played into one ear called the attended ear whilst another message is spoken to the other ear. For example, participants asked to shadow "I saw the girl furniture over" and ignore "me that bird green jumping fee", reported hearing "I saw the girl jumping over".
Clearly, then, the unattended message was being processed for meaning and Broadbent's Filter Model, where the filter extracted on the basis of physical characteristics only, could not explain these findings. The evidence suggests that Broadbent's Filter Model is not adequate, it does not allow for meaning being taken into account. Treisman's Model overcomes some of the problems associated with Broadbent's Filter Model, e. A problem with all dichotic listening experiments is that you can never be sure that the participants have not actually switched attention to the so called unattended channel. Cherry, E. Some experiments on the recognition of speech with one and with two ears. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 25, — Eysenck, M.