⌚ Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay

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Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay



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Pericles: The Golden Age of Athens

These ideas, which became a cornerstone of Freud's psychological theories, he named the " Oedipus Complex ", and, at one point, he considered calling it the "Hamlet Complex". Hamlet is able to perform any kind of action except taking revenge on the man who murdered his father and has taken his father's place with his mother—Claudius has led Hamlet to realize the repressed desires of his own childhood. The loathing which was supposed to drive him to revenge is replaced by "self-reproach, by conscientious scruples" which tell him "he himself is no better than the murderer whom he is required to punish".

Freud suggests that the character Hamlet goes through an experience that has three characteristics, which he numbered: 1 "the hero is not psychopathic, but becomes so" during the course of the play. The audience identifies with the character of Hamlet, because "we are victims of the same conflict. Freud points out that Hamlet is an exception in that psychopathic characters are usually ineffective in stage plays; they "become as useless for the stage as they are for life itself", because they do not inspire insight or empathy, unless the audience is familiar with the character's inner conflict.

Freud says, "It is thus the task of the dramatist to transport us into the same illness. John Barrymore 's long-running performance in New York , directed by Thomas Hopkins, "broke new ground in its Freudian approach to character", in keeping with the post-World War I rebellion against everything Victorian. Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light. Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father. Ophelia is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity.

In the Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages volume on Hamlet, editors Bloom and Foster express a conviction that the intentions of Shakespeare in portraying the character of Hamlet in the play exceeded the capacity of the Freudian Oedipus complex to completely encompass the extent of characteristics depicted in Hamlet throughout the tragedy: "For once, Freud regressed in attempting to fasten the Oedipus Complex upon Hamlet: it will not stick, and merely showed that Freud did better than T.

Eliot, who preferred Coriolanus to Hamlet , or so he said. Who can believe Eliot, when he exposes his own Hamlet Complex by declaring the play to be an aesthetic failure? Joshua Rothman has written in The New Yorker that "we tell the story wrong when we say that Freud used the idea of the Oedipus complex to understand Hamlet ". Rothman suggests that "it was the other way around: Hamlet helped Freud understand, and perhaps even invent, psychoanalysis". He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer. It should be called the 'Hamlet complex'. In the s, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan analyzed Hamlet to illustrate some of his concepts.

His structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet ". Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire. In the 20th century, feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia.

New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment. In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet. In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet. Ophelia, by some critics, can be seen as honest and fair; however, it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait. This analysis has been praised by many feminist critics, combating what is, by Heilbrun's argument, centuries' worth of misinterpretation.

By this account, Gertrude's worst crime is of pragmatically marrying her brother-in-law in order to avoid a power vacuum. This is borne out by the fact that King Hamlet's ghost tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude out of Hamlet's revenge, to leave her to heaven, an arbitrary mercy to grant to a conspirator to murder. Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter. All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies. Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness.

Showalter points out that Ophelia has become the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture. Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature. Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play. English poet John Milton was an early admirer of Shakespeare and took evident inspiration from his work. As John Kerrigan discusses, Milton originally considered writing his epic poem Paradise Lost as a tragedy.

As scholar Christopher N. Warren argues, Paradise Lost ' s Satan "undergoes a transformation in the poem from a Hamlet-like avenger into a Claudius-like usurper," a plot device that supports Milton's larger Republican internationalist project. Henry Fielding 's Tom Jones , published about , describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play". When Baum had been touring New York State in the title role, the actor playing the ghost fell through the floorboards, and the rural audience thought it was part of the show and demanded that the actor repeat the fall, because they thought it was funny. Baum would later recount the actual story in an article, but the short story is told from the point of view of the actor playing the ghost.

In the s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet —stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses , though its main parallels are with Homer 's Odyssey. In Angela Carter 's Wise Children , To be or not to be [] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch 's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet -obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival.

There is the story of the woman who read Hamlet for the first time and said, "I don't see why people admire that play so. It is nothing but a bunch of quotations strung together. The day we see Hamlet die in the theatre, something of him dies for us. He is dethroned by the spectre of an actor, and we shall never be able to keep the usurper out of our dreams. Maurice Maeterlinck in La Jeune Belgique Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage.

He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men , with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range. Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant. It is sometimes argued that the crew of the ship Red Dragon , anchored off Sierra Leone , performed Hamlet in September ; [] [] [] However, this claim is based on a 19th century insert of a 'lost' passage into a period document, and is today widely regarded as a hoax not to mention the intrinsic unlikelihood of sailors memorising and performing the play.

More credible is that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death; [] and that it was performed before James I in and Charles I in All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum. The play was revived early in the Restoration. When the existing stock of pre- civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies , Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured. Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity.

Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln , and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth. In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era including Kean, Samuel Phelps , Macready, and Henry Irving staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes. George Bernard Shaw 's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson 's performance contains a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments. What is the Lyceum coming to? In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective.

In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his Paris performance of Hamlet , particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson 's Ophelia. Konstantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig —two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners —collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre 's seminal production of — Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones.

Leopold Jessner 's production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius's court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm. In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius's death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground. Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's production at the Haymarket ; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier. The staging, known as the "G. Olivier does not speak poetry badly.

He does not speak it at all. Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history performances. The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the ghost which appeared as a looming shadow. It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L.

Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes 's in for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor —which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances. It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means. Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read Stephen Lang 's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in received mixed reviews [] [] and ran for sixty-one performances. David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in The Internet Broadway Database lists sixty-six productions of Hamlet.

Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen , said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet". Hamlet continues to be staged regularly. The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August In October , a production starring Michael Sheen opened at the Young Vic , in which the play was set inside a psychiatric hospital.

In , American actor Paul Giamatti won mixed reviews for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet , performed in modern dress , at the Yale Repertory Theater , at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut [] []. The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years. Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet , it began its tour on 23 April , the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, and performed in countries. Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre , opening on 25 August It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time" and sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August , more than a year before the play opened.

A Almeida Theatre production, directed by Robert Icke and starring Andrew Scott , was a sold out hit and was transferred that same year to the West End's Harold Pinter Theatre , to five star reviews. Tom Hiddleston played the role for a three-week run at Vanbrugh Theatre that opened on 1 September and was directed by Kenneth Branagh. In , The Globe Theatre 's newly instated artistic director Michelle Terry played the role in a production notable for its gender-blind casting.

The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt 's five-minute film of the fencing scene, [y] which was produced in The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film , music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film. Laurence Olivier 's moody black-and-white Hamlet won Best Picture and Best Actor Academy Awards , and is, as of [update] , the only Shakespeare film to have done so. His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet.

In , actor Jack Manning performed the play in minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater. A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film. In Franco Zeffirelli , whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral", [] cast Mel Gibson —then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his version ; Glenn Close —then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction —played Gertrude, [] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father.

Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a film version of Hamlet that contained material from the First Folio and the Second Quarto. Branagh's Hamlet runs for just over four hours. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet 's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick played by Ken Dodd. There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings. For example, the Bollywood film Haider is an adaptation set in Kashmir. There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet.

This section is limited to those written for the stage. The best-known is Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own. Several times since , the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their and seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations".

Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , in which Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed. Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride. Lee Blessing 's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts. The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Fortinbras operates on a far less ambitious plane, but it is a ripping yarn and offers Keith Reddin a role in which he can commit comic mayhem".

Caridad Svich 's 12 Ophelias a play with broken songs includes elements of the story of Hamlet but focuses on Ophelia. In Svich's play, Ophelia is resurrected and rises from a pool of water, after her death in Hamlet. The play is a series of scenes and songs, and was first staged at a public swimming pool in Brooklyn. David Davalos ' Wittenberg is a "tragical-comical-historical" prequel to Hamlet that depicts the Danish prince as a student at Wittenberg University now known as the University of Halle-Wittenberg , where he is torn between the conflicting teachings of his mentors John Faustus and Martin Luther.

The New York Times reviewed the play, saying, "Mr. Davalos has molded a daft campus comedy out of this unlikely convergence," [] and Nytheatre. All references to Hamlet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the play by William Shakespeare. For the type of settlement, see Hamlet place. For other uses, see Hamlet disambiguation. Tragedy by William Shakespeare. Hamlet portrayed by the actor Edwin Booth , c. Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Polonius. Main article: Characters in Hamlet. Hamlet — son of the late king and nephew of the present king, Claudius Claudius — king of Denmark, Hamlet's uncle and brother to the former king Gertrude — queen of Denmark and Hamlet's mother Polonius — chief counsellor to the king Ophelia — Polonius's daughter Horatio — friend of Hamlet Laertes — Polonius's son Voltimand and Cornelius — courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern — courtiers, friends of Hamlet Osric — a courtier Marcellus — an officer Barnardo — an officer Francisco — a soldier Reynaldo — Polonius's servant Ghost — the ghost of Hamlet's father Fortinbras — prince of Norway Gravediggers — a pair of sextons Player King, Player Queen, Lucianus, etc.

Main article: Sources of Hamlet. Main article: Critical approaches to Hamlet. See also: Literary influence of Hamlet. Main articles: Hamlet in performance and Shakespeare in performance. Main article: Hamlet on screen. See also: Cultural references to Hamlet. However Harold Jenkins, the editor of the second series Arden edition of the play, considers that there are not grounds for thinking that the Ur-Hamlet is an early work by Shakespeare, which he then rewrote. Craig and Stanislavski began planning the production in but, due to a serious illness of Stanislavski's, it was delayed until December In the dark, shadowy foreground, separated by a gauze , Hamlet lay, as if dreaming.

On Claudius's exit-line the figures remained but the gauze was loosened, so that they appeared to melt away as if Hamlet's thoughts had turned elsewhere. For this effect, the scene received an ovation , which was unheard of at the MAT. Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 25 July Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 March The Guardian. Retrieved 4 November Bate, Jonathan ; Rasmussen, Eric, eds. Complete Works. The RSC Shakespeare. New York: Royal Shakespeare Company.

ISBN The Royal Shakespeare Company. Edwards, Phillip, ed. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. New Cambridge Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Evans, G. Blakemore , ed. The Riverside Shakespeare. Houghton Mifflin for Riverside Shakespeare Company. Hibbard, G. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Irace, Kathleen O. The First Quarto of Hamlet. Jenkins, Harold, ed. The Arden Shakespeare , second series. London: Methuen. Lott, Bernard, ed. New Swan Shakespeare , Advanced series New ed. London: Longman. Thompson, Ann; Taylor, Neil, eds.

The Arden Shakespeare , third series. London: Cengage Learning. Hamlet: The Texts of and Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary, eds. The Complete Works. The Oxford Shakespeare Compact ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Alexander, Peter Alexander's Introductions to Shakespeare. London: Collins. OCLC Banham, Martin, ed. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge Guides. Barratt, Mark Ian Mckellen: An Unofficial Biography. Virgin Books. Benedetti, Jean []. Stanislavski: His Life and Art Revised ed. Billington, Michael 4 May Billington, Michael 6 August Bloom, Harold Harlow, Essex: Longman.

ISBN X. The Western Canon. New York: Harcourt Brace. Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. Edinburgh: Canongate. Bloom, Harold ; Foster, Brett, eds. Bloom's Shakespeare through the ages. Bloom's Literary Criticism. Blum, Daniel C. A Pictorial History of the American Theatre, — 5th ed. Crown Publishers. Brandes, Philip 5 July Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 December Braun, Edward Brennan, Sandra The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 29 May Britton, Celia In Seldon, Raman ed. From Formalism to Poststructuralism. Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. Brode, Douglas New York: Berkley Boulevard Books. Retrieved 18 February Brown, Mark 1 April Retrieved 22 July Brown, Mark 11 April In each of these works t!

During the time of Sophocles, the Greek population led a simplistic life enjoying a dynamic life of festivals, light work loads and the attendance of compulsory dramas paid for by the state for human enhancement. The Greek population consisted of free men, free women and slaves. Men were at the top of the hierarchy enjoying all the benefits provided by their civilization; involvement in politics, ownership of property, influence, and the freedom to chose their actions.

Women on the other hand were primarily elegated to keeping up and nurturing the appearances of society; care of the home and children, upkeep of possessions, and more importantly upkeep of their husbands reputations and honor. These include being humble before the gods, being responsible for your actions while having respect for humans and for the instructions of the gods. The expectations and roles of women are also shown through the actions of Jocasta the queen in comparison with the actions of her husband Oedipus. Jocasta is not entitled to as much public power as her husband, her role is in the background, helping direct him privately and always caring to keep up his reputation.

And Creon, you go home. Why make such a furor over nothing? Fortunately, after Pericles passed away, Nicias fame and popularity propelled him to nobility for people loved him dearly. There appeared to be some fortune in all that Nicias did. He managed to overcome his closest rival Cleon, by use of subtle tactics. He had massive wealth. His simplicity and popularity ensured that he fitted in any group that he found himself. For instance, he would reward his cravers generously regardless of whether they are malicious or good-hearted. Through these tactics, orators could not find anything to accuse him for he did not even drink, engage in useless talk, or get involved in pleasures that would taint his reputation. Nicias simplicity and openness made him bring peace amongst Grecians something they call, Nicium peace even to date.

His nature to create peace enabled him to stoop low before Gylippus who had taken hostage some Athenians; unfortunately, he was seized, taken in as a prisoner, and killed. Crassus was a man of good character; however, accusations that he had defiled Licinia; a nun, tinted his reputation. Unfortunately, Cinna and Marius attacked Rome forcing Crassus, his father and brother to escape to Spain in a flight. Rumors had it that, some tyrants were looking for Crassus.

In Spain, he lived in caves until Cinna died after eight months. He maneuvered his way back to Italy under Sylla. At one time, he saved Cesar by lending him talents to satisfy his creditors something that elevated Crassus to nobility; he became the governor and praetor of Gaul; however, Po attacked and overthrew him. Fortunately, the senate was offended, overruled this act, and restored Crassus. He achieved several feats like conquering Spartacus in Romania. This marked the end of one Marcus Crassus. Nicias was a man of the people as aforementioned; he never did anything malicious; on the contrary, he purposed to do things that would benefit all.

But in Greek society, the deep Racism In The Semplica Girl Diaries By George Saunders between the leftist Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay rightist sections continued. The Ottomans ruled most of Greece until the early 19th century. Polonius blames love Steven Universe Gender Analysis Hamlet's madness and resolves Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay inform Claudius and Gertrude. Hamlet Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay well at first, leading the Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay by two hits to none, and Gertrude raises a toast to him using the poisoned glass of wine Claudius had Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay aside for Hamlet. This combination is not Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay in marriages. He Pericles And Oedipus Comparison Essay the glory of the throne with his partner.

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