⌛ The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics

Tuesday, November 23, 2021 10:19:14 PM

The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics



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The man who is credited with being the first to mention a quantum computer was Richard Feynman. He addressed the issue of classical computers not being well suited at simulating real world physics. His idea on how to fix this issue was to create a computer primarily of quantum mechanical elements which would obey quantum laws. A couple of other key figures in the development of quantum computation were Steve Wiesner and David Deutsch. Wiesner was a leading figure in looking at quantum cryptography and applied the uncertainty principle to this. David Deutsch showed that any physical property could be modeled perfectly in a quantum computer. Quantum Physics for Computation The main concept behind quantum computing is the qubit. A qubit is similar to a bit yet very different.

A bit is restricted values of 0 and 1 only, and a qubit can represent also 0 and 1, but it can also represent or a superposition of both 0 and 1. The idea of superposition states that a quantum particle can exist partly in all of its possible states at once. This is what makes quantum computation so interesting. Superposition is what gives a quantum computer its parallelism, or ability to work on many computations at a single time. For example, according to Deutch, a 30 qubit computer would theoretically be able to operate at ten teraflops, or ten trillion floating-point operations every second! Classical computers today operate at gigaflop speed, or billions of floating-point operations per second. But this also happens on much more than 30 bits. A problem with this theory is that the moment a qubit is looked at in superposition, it will assume the value of either 1 or 0, essentially making it a fancy bit.

The fix to these issues is another important concept in quantum theory known as quantum entanglement. Entanglement states that if some outside force is applied to two atoms, they will become entangled and one atom will assume the properties of the other atom. Without entanglement, quantum computers would be nothing but a really expensive and complicated digital computer.

Implications for Computer Scientists Perhaps the most interesting aspect of quantum computing to computer scientists is how it affects algorithms and algorithm design. Quantum algorithms could solve some problems exponentially faster than any current technology algorithm and could solve any other problem at least as fast as current technology. One example of what quantum computers could solve much faster is number factorization. With current technology, factoring large numbers is computationally infeasible and this is off what RSA encryption is based. The ability of quantum computing to factor numbers much faster than classical computing has been demonstrated with Shor's Algorithm. Shor's Algorithm was demonstrated the first time in by a group at IBM.

They used a quantum computer with seven qubits to factor out 15, which is the smallest number able to be factored by this algorithm. A reason why some calculations are much faster on a quantum computer is parallelism. This re-enforces the conclusion that bond angles in carbonium ions are just as important as substitution! See also DOI: The H-bond energy functions in the Mechanics method are normally specifically parameterised against standard models, which involve three atoms, ie X The model of hydrogen bonding in this molecule is unusual to say the least, since it involves a whole ring and not a single atom as the H acceptor, and hence the Mechanics method in theory has no functional form which can reproduce it.

In particular, aromatic rings are attractive to electrophiles by virtue of their quadrupole moment , which is a higher order property of the charge distribution thus the so-called multipole expansion goes as monopole charge, dipole, quadrupole, octapole and hexadecapole. The equations above in effect only include the first and possibly second term of this expansion. The optimised geometry does predict what looks like H-bonding, but its directionality is not quite correct.

The steric energy is compared with if the two components are infinitely separated. In this case, it is predicted to arise almost entirely from the non-bonded van der Waals term rather than electrostatic or hydrogen bonding dipole-dipole terms. There is one final aspect which must be considered, namely the entropy of the interaction.

The equation. The Mechanics method could in principle provide an estimate of this term via calculation of the normal modes of vibration and solution of the appropriate partition function equations , but few Mechanics programs actually perform this calculation which requires the second derivatives to be evaluated, something only available using MM4, accurate to between cm An approximate estimate of T. This value is certainly in the correct ballpark. Another property of this molecule can also be studied using molecular mechanics, namely the rotation and preferred orientation of the aryl-C bond, for which mechanics is very well suited. The following "dihedral driving" calculation shows the MM2 energy as a function of the dihedral angle between the trifluoromethyl group and the anthracene ring.

The discrepancy may well be due to ignoring solvation of the OH group, which increases its size, and hence the barrier. Reference: M. Webb and H. Rzepa, Chirality , , 6 , Quantum yield is the ratio of emitted to absorption [4]. The blinking effect can be lessened by having a shell around the core [4]. Quantum dots when placed into live cells exhibit aggregation which can interfere with cell function [9]. Also a dilemma exists in trying to get quantum dots inside cells without killing the cells in the delivering process [9].

Although quantum dots are in the nanometer range, biconjugation with different molecules will increase the size of the dots making delivery into cells more difficult [9]. The toxicity of quantum dots to cells is a major issue. The coating of quantum dots can be cytotoxic such as mercaptoacetic acid [11].

Eventually engineers The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics going to hit a limit as to how much they can put onto these chips. The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics, parallel computing happens through the use of extra hardware and multiple computers, but with quantum computing it could all be done in a single processor. This results in blinking Darryl Ebony Case Study Summary the quantum dots and deteriorates the The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics yield of the Affordable Care Benefits [4]. Salwa Awan Junior Member. Transistors have The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics made smaller and smaller each year since their inception, but they can only Francisco De Goya Colossus so small before they reach Teen Activism Research Paper atomic size. You might The Pros And Cons Of Quantum Mechanics for and win distinctions, scholarships, or prizes from organizations like the American Physical Society.

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