✍️✍️✍️ Islam In Africa

Tuesday, August 24, 2021 4:29:54 PM

Islam In Africa



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Beginning of Muslim Africa - Battle of Sufetula 647 DOCUMENTARY

On the contrary the gap between the rich and the poor has simply widened. Further, the party has alienated some of its base when it endorsed a controversial law introducing two-year contracts for teachers, robbing them of job security and is regarded by some as the first step in privatising the education system. On the question of the status of the French language in education - a particularly sensitive topic for a party that champions Arab-Islamic identity in the former French colony - it failed to block a law that made French the language of teaching science in schools. Critics of the party say once in power it became more royalist than the king, taking the side of the "makhzen" - the term Moroccans use to refer to the king and powerful courtiers and security agencies - against the people in key rights and labour disputes.

Some commentators believe that the party's biggest mistake was assuming the responsibility of government without actually having the real power, which rested with the king. All that said, the change to the electoral law, not proposed by the PJD but which was passed by parliament in March, also dealt a decisive blow to the party's chances of achieving another big electoral win. Lowering the benchmark for smaller parties, and counting the votes on the basis of all eligible voters rather than on only valid ballots, contributed to the party's loss. The party had contested these changes, saying they were unconstitutional, but had failed to block them in parliament.

On the face of it, the changes were designed to allow for greater plurality, but in reality they further fragmented the political landscape, a tactic that has long been used by the makhzen, say analysts, to undermine political parties. Regionally, the news of the failure was greeted with jubilation. In Egypt and the Gulf the party is viewed as the Moroccan version of the Muslim Brotherhood, a national and transnational political-religious movement that has been designated as "terrorist" in some countries. Commentators regarded the fall of PJD as the final nail in the coffin of political Islam. In Morocco, it is safe to argue that the marginalisation of the PJD suggests that the makhzen has now completely weathered the storm of the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath.

But the underlying tensions rising from the quest for truly representative and accountable government, or from the desire to check the powers of the king - have not gone away. The man nominated by the king to form the new government, Aziz Akhannouch, the billionaire leader of the National Rally of Independents RNI , which won the largest number of votes, has said that his government will work to "implement the strategy of the king".

Commenting on the statement, veteran Moroccan journalist, Hamid Elmahdaouy, wrote that all previous PM designates had said the same thing. He wondered what was the point of the election musing whether "voting and the whole election was a charade". They were followed by Muslims later in the same year. This mosque has two Qiblas because it was built before the Prophet switched the Qiblah from Jerusalem to Mecca. They also reportedly built Africa's oldest mosque , that is the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa.

Islam gained momentum during the 10th century in West Africa with the start of the Almoravid dynasty movement on the Senegal River and as rulers and kings embraced Islam. Islam then spread slowly in much of the continent through trade and preaching. Islam only crossed deeper into Malawi and Congo in the second half of the 19th century under the Zanzibar Sultanate. Then the British brought their labor force from India, including some Muslim-Indian nationals, to their colonies in Africa towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Islam was introduced to the northern Somali coast early on from the Arabian peninsula , shortly after the hijra.

Zeila 's two- mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in the city. According to I. Lewis, the polity was governed by local dynasties , who also ruled over the similarly-established Sultanate of Mogadishu in the littoral Benadir region to the south. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighboring Abyssinia. In the following centuries, the consolidation of Muslim trading networks, connected by lineage, trade, and Sufi brotherhoods, had reached a peak in West Africa , enabling Muslims to wield tremendous political influence and power.

Other early notable missionaries include Abdallah ibn Yasin , who started a movement which caused thousands of Berbers to accept Islam. The History of Islam in Africa and accounts of how the religion spread, especially in North and the Horn of Africa, has always been contentious. Abu-Abdullah Adelabu has written in his Movements of Islam in face of the Empires and Kingdoms in Yorubaland claims about the early arrival of Islam in southwestern Nigeria. He seconded the Arab anthropologist Abduhu Badawi on the argument that the early Muslim missionaries had benefited their works from the fall of Kush in northern Sudan and the prosperity of the politically multicultural Abbasid period in the continent which, according to him, had created several streams of migration, moving west in the mid-9th century into Sub-Saharan Africa.

Adelabu 's claim seems to be in line with the conventional historical view that the conquest of North Africa by the Umayyad Caliphate between AD — effectively ended Christianity in Africa for several centuries. Similarly, in the Swahili coast , Islam made its way inland — spreading at the expense of traditional African religions. In praising the Africans' zealousness to Islam, the 14th-century explorer Ibn Battuta stated that mosques were so crowded on Fridays, that unless one went very early, it was impossible to find a place to sit.

In the 16th century, the Ouaddai Empire and the Kingdom of Kano embraced Islam, and later toward the 18th century, the Nigeria based Sokoto Caliphate led by Usman dan Fodio exerted considerable effort in spreading Islam. Today, Islam is the predominant religion of the northern half of Africa, mainly concentrated in North Africa , the Horn of Africa and the Sahel , as well as West Africa. Islam has been in Africa for so long, since its emergence on the Arabian peninsula, that some scholars have argued that it is a traditional African religion. Although the majority of Muslims in Africa are non-denominational Muslims , Sunni [2] or Sufi , the complexity of Islam in Africa is revealed in the various schools of thought, traditions, and voices that constantly contend for dominance in many African countries.

Islam in Africa is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social, economic and political conditions. Islam in Africa is often adapted to local cultural contexts and belief systems, thereby forming the continent's own orthodoxies. Different societies in Africa have generally appropriated Islam in both more inclusive ways, or in the more radical ways, as with the Almoravid movement in the Maghreb and Sahara. Additionally, Islam in Africa has both local and global dimensions. On the local level, experts assert that Muslims including African Muslims operate with considerable autonomy and do not have an international organization that regulates their religious practices. This fact accounts for the differences and varieties in Islamic practices throughout the African continent.

With globalization and new initiatives in information technology, Muslims in Africa have developed and maintained close connections with the wider Muslim world. Analysts argue that Muslims in Africa, like other Muslims in Asia , the Middle East and the rest of the world, seem to be locked into an intense struggle regarding the future direction of Islam. At core of the struggle are questions about the way in which Muslims should practice their faith. The scholars assert that the majority seems to prefer to remain on the moderate, tolerant course that Islam has historically followed.

However, a relatively small, but growing group would like to establish a stricter form of the religion, one that informs and controls all aspects of society. In Africa, most states limit the use of Sharia to "personal-status law" for issues such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and child custody. With the exception of northern Nigeria in West Africa , secularism does not seem to face any serious threat in Africa, even though the new Islamic revival is having a great impact upon segments of Muslim populations.

Cohabitation or coexistence between Muslims and non-Muslims remains, for the most part, peaceful. Nigeria is home to Africa's largest Muslim population. See Methodology for more detail. Data on sectarian affiliation have been infrequently collected or, in many countries, not collected at all. Therefore, the Sunni and Shia numbers reported here are expressed as broad ranges and should be treated as approximate. These findings on the world Muslim population lay the foundation for a forthcoming study by the Pew Forum, scheduled to be released in , that will estimate growth rates among Muslim populations worldwide and project Muslim populations into the future. The Pew Forum plans to launch a similar study of global Christianity in as well.

The Pew Forum also plans to conduct in-depth public opinion surveys on the intersection of religion and public life around the world, starting with a country survey of sub-Saharan Africa scheduled to be released later this year. Only countries with more than 1 million Muslims are shown Muslim population, the percentage of its population that is Muslim and the percentage of the world Muslim population it represents. Figures are rounded to the nearest million.

Click to enlarge. Download the map. Two-thirds of all Muslims worldwide live in the 10 countries shown below. Of the roughly million Muslims living as minorities, about million — about three-quarters — live in five countries: India million , Ethiopia 28 million , China 22 million , Russia 16 million and Tanzania 13 million. Two of the 10 countries with the largest number of Muslims living as minorities are in Europe: Russia 16 million and Germany 4 million. These minority populations are often quite large. For example, India, a Hindu-majority country, has the third-largest population of Muslims worldwide. The Muslim population of Ethiopia is about as large as that of Afghanistan. Of the countries and territories included in this study, 50 are Muslim-majority.

The Middle East-North Africa region contains the highest percentage of Muslim-majority countries compared with other regions. This report estimates that there are between million and million Shia Muslims in the world today. The figures for Shias are generally given as a range because of the limitations in the secondary-source data see Methodology for Sunni-Shia Estimates.

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