✎✎✎ Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System

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Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System

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B2: Compare Japanese and European Feudalism

In the s, the Habsburg Monarchy , Prussia and Russia invaded, annexed, and subsequently partitioned Poland. Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw , a new Polish state that ignited a spirit of nationalism. Russia took it over in as Congress Poland with the tsar proclaimed as "King of Poland". Large-scale nationalist revolts erupted in and —64 but were harshly crushed by Russia, which tried to make the Polish language , culture and religion more like Russia's. The collapse of the Russian Empire in the First World War enabled the major powers to re-establish an independent Poland, which survived until Meanwhile, Poles in areas controlled by Germany moved into heavy industry but their religion came under attack by Bismarck in the Kulturkampf of the s. He responded by stopping the harassment and cooperating with the Centre Party.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, many Polish nationalist leaders endorsed the Piast Concept. It held there was a Polish utopia during the Piast Dynasty a thousand years before, and modern Polish nationalists should restore its central values of Poland for the Poles. Jan Poplawski had developed the "Piast Concept" in the s, and it formed the centerpiece of Polish nationalist ideology, especially as presented by the National Democracy Party , known as the "Endecja," which was led by Roman Dmowski. In contrast with the Jagiellon concept, there was no concept for a multi-ethnic Poland. The Piast concept stood in opposition to the "Jagiellon Concept," which allowed for multi-ethnicism and Polish rule over numerous minority groups such as those in the Kresy.

The Jagiellon Concept was the official policy of the government in the s and s. He instead endorsed the Piast Concept, which justified a massive shift of Poland's frontiers to the west. Bulgarian modern nationalism emerged under Ottoman rule in the late 18th and early 19th century, under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French Revolution. The Bulgarian national revival started with the work of Saint Paisius of Hilendar , who opposed Greek domination of Bulgaria's culture and religion. His work Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya "History of the Slav-Bulgarians" , which appeared in , was the first work of Bulgarian historiography. It is considered Paisius' greatest work and one of the greatest pieces of Bulgarian literature.

In it, Paisius interpreted Bulgarian medieval history with the goal of reviving the spirit of his nation. His successor was Saint Sophronius of Vratsa , who started the struggle for an independent Bulgarian church. In the Internal Revolutionary Organization was initiated. The April Uprising of indirectly resulted in the re-establishment of Bulgaria in Jewish nationalism arose in the latter half of the 19th century and it was largely correlated with the Zionist movement. This term originated from the word Zion , which was one of the Torah 's names for the city of Jerusalem.

The end goal of the nationalists and Zionists was a Jewish majority and in most cases, a state, in the land of Palestine. A tumultuous history of living in oppressive, foreign, and uncertain circumstances led the supporters of the movement to draft a declaration of independence, claiming Israel as a birthplace. The first and second destructions of the temple and ancient Torah prophecies largely shaped the incentives of the Jewish nationalists. Many prominent theories in Jewish theology and eschatology were formed by supporters and opponents of the movement in this era. It was the French Revolution of which sparked new waves of thinking across Europe regarding governance and sovereignty.

A shift from the traditional hierarchy-based system towards political individualism and citizen-states posed a dilemma for the Jews. Citizenship was now essential, when it came to ensuring basic legal and residential rights. This resulted in more and more Jews choosing to identify with certain nationalities in order to maintain these rights. Logic said that a nation-based system of states would require the Jews themselves to claim their own right to be considered a nation due to a distinguishable language and history. Historian David Engel has explained that Zionism was more about fear that a majority of worldwide Jews would end up dispersed and unprotected, rather than fulfilling old prophecies and traditions of historical texts.

The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent. The key episode was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan in , demonstrating the military advancement of non-Europeans in a modern war. The defeat which quickly led to manifestations of a new interest in nationalism in China, as well as Turkey, and Persia. The Kuomintang recruits pledged:. The Kuomintang largely ran China until the Communists took over in But the latter had also been strongly influenced by Sun's nationalism as well as by the May Fourth Movement in It was a nationwide protest movement about the domestic backwardness of China and has often been depicted as the intellectual foundation for Chinese Communism.

Historian Patricia Ebrey says:. Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism , feudalism , warlordism , autocracy, patriarchy , and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies. Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations. Nationalist irredentist movements Greek advocating for Enosis unity of ethnically Greek states with the Hellenic Republic to create a unified Greek state , used today in the case of Cyprus , as well as the Megali Idea , the Greek movement that advocated for the reconquering of Greek ancestral lands from the Ottoman Empire such as Crete , Ionia , Pontus , Northern Epirus , Cappadocia , Thrace among others that were popular in the late 19th and early to 20th centuries, led to many Greek states and regions that were ethnically Greek to eventually unite with Greece and the Greco-Turkish war of The 4th of August regime was a fascist or fascistic nationalist authoritarian dictatorship inspired by Mussolini's Fascist Italy and Hitler 's Germany and led by Greek general Ioannis Metaxas from to his death in It advocated for the Third Hellenic Civilization, a culturally superior Greek civilization that would be the successor of the First and Second Greek civilizations, that were Ancient Greece and the Byzantine empire respectively.

It promoted Greek traditions , folk music and dances , classicism as well as medievalism. In the s the European powers divided up almost all of Africa only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent. They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger. In the s and s the colonial holdings became independent states. The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria, [97] Kenya [98] and elsewhere.

Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars. It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers nor the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers. Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them.

Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off. These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state. South Africa , a British colony, was exceptional in that it became virtually independent by From it was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid , which lasted until , when elections were held.

The international anti-apartheid movement supported black nationalist until success was achieved and Nelson Mandela was elected president. Arab nationalism , a movement toward liberating and empowering the Arab peoples of the Middle East, emerged during the latter 19th century, inspired by other independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries.

As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners. Syria was established in ; Transjordan later Jordan gradually gained independence between and ; Saudi Arabia was established in ; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between and The Arab League was established in to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states. Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century. Beginning in Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland.

The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in As this move conflicted with the belief among Arab nationalists that Palestine was part of the Arab nation, the neighboring Arab nations launched an invasion to claim the region. The invasion was only partly successful and led to decades of clashes between the Arab and Jewish nationalist ideologies. There was a rise in extreme nationalism after the Revolutions of triggered the collapse of communism in the s. When communism fell, it left many people with no identity. The people under communist rule had to integrate, and they found themselves free to choose.

Given free choice, long dormant conflicts rose up and created sources of serious conflict. In his article Jihad vs. McWorld, Benjamin Barber proposed that the fall of communism will cause large numbers of people to search for unity and that small scale wars will become common; groups will attempt to redraw boundaries, identities, cultures and ideologies. Academic Steven Berg felt that at the root of nationalist conflicts is the demand for autonomy and a separate existence. The national census numbers for a ten-year span — measured an increase from 1. Within Yugoslavia, separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia is an invisible line of previous conquests of the region.

Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy. In the s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories. In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise. To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict. This strengthened the political stance promoting ethnic identities. This caused intense and divided political leadership within Yugoslavia. In the s Yugoslavia began to break into fragments. Conflict in the disputed territories was stimulated by the rise in mass nationalism and inter-ethnic hostilities.

This combined with escalating violence from ethnic Albanians and Serbs within Kosovo intensified economic conditions. The ongoing conflict in Kosovo was propagandized by Communist Serbian Slobodan Milosevic to further increase Serb nationalism. As mentioned, this nationalism did give rise to powerful emotions which grew the force of Serbian nationalism through highly nationalist demonstrations in Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Within Slovenia, fear was mounting because Milosevic was using the militia to suppress a in Kosovo, what would he do to Slovenia. In fall of tensions came to a head and Slovenia asserted its political and economic independence from Yugoslavia and seceded.

In January , there was a total break with Serbia at the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, an institution conceived by Milosevic to strengthen unity and became the backdrop for the fall of communism within Yugoslavia. In August , a warning to the region was issued when ethnically divided groups attempted to alter the government structure. The republic borders established by the Communist regime in the postwar period were extremely vulnerable to challenges from ethnic communities. Ethnic communities arose because they did not share the identity with everyone within the new post-Communist borders.

The same disputes were erupting that were in place prior to Milosevic and were compounded by actions from his regime. Also within the territory the Croats and the Serbs were in direct competition for control of government. Elections were held and increased potential conflicts between Serb and Croat nationalism. Serbia wanted to be separate and decide its own future based on its own ethnic composition. But this would then give Kosovo encouragement to become independent from Serbia.

Albanians in Kosovo were already independent from Kosovo. Serbia didn't want to let Kosovo become independent. Muslims nationalists wanted their own territory but it would require a redrawing of the map, and would threaten neighboring territories. When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism. Nationalism again gave rise to powerful emotions which evoked in some extreme cases, a willingness to die for what you believe in, a fight for the survival of the group.

In the six years following the collapse , people died in the Bosnian war. Arab nationalism began to decline in the 21st century leading to localized nationalism, culminating in a series of revolts against authoritarian regimes between and , known as the Arab Spring. Following these revolts, which mostly failed to improve conditions in the affected nations, Arab nationalism and even most local nationalistic movements declined dramatically.

The rise of globalism in the late 20th century led to a rise in nationalism and populism in Europe and North America. This trend was further fueled by increased terrorism in the West the September 11 attacks in the United States being a prime example , increasing unrest and civil wars in the Middle East, and waves of Muslim refugees flooding into Europe as of [update] the refugee crisis appears to have peaked. Since , Catalan nationalists have led a renewed Catalan independence movement and declared Catalonia's independence. The movement has been opposed by Spanish nationalists. In Russia, exploitation of nationalist sentiments allowed Vladimir Putin to consolidate power. In India, Hindu nationalism has grown in popularity with the rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party , a right-wing party which has been ruling India at the national level since In Japan, nationalist influences in the government developed over the course of the early 21 century, thanks in large part to the Nippon Kaigi organization.

The new movement has advocated re-establishing Japan as a military power and revising historical narratives to support the notion of a moral and strong Japan. A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom was held on 18 September The proposal was defeated, with In a referendum , the British populace voted to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union known as Brexit. The result had been largely unexpected and was seen [ by whom? As the promise of continued European Union membership was a core feature of the anti-independence campaign during the Scottish referendum, there have been calls for a second referendum on Scottish independence.

Trump's slogans " Make America Great Again " and " America First " exemplified his campaign's repudiation of globalism and its staunchly nationalistic outlook. His unexpected victory in the election was seen as part of the same trend that had brought about the Brexit vote. In , Rodrigo Duterte became president of the Philippines running a distinctly nationalist campaign. Contrary to the policies of his recent predecessors, he distanced the country from the Philippines' former ruler, the United States, and sought closer ties with China as well as Russia.

Many political scientists have theorized about the foundations of the modern nation-state and the concept of sovereignty. The concept of nationalism in political science draws from these theoretical foundations. Philosophers like Machiavelli , Locke , Hobbes , and Rousseau conceptualized the state as the result of a " social contract " between rulers and individuals. Many scholars have noted the relationship between state-building , war , and nationalism. Many scholars believe that the development of nationalism in Europe and subsequently the modern nation-state was due to the threat of war. Jeffrey Herbst argues that the lack of external threats to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, post-independence, is linked to weak state nationalism and state capacity.

It has also been observed that nationalist parties benefit from the ability to diversify from niche positions under electoral systems based on proportional representation. Most new nation-states since have emerged through decolonization. The sociological or modernist interpretation of nationalism and nation-building argues that nationalism arises and flourishes in modern societies that have an industrial economy capable of self-sustainability, a central supreme authority capable of maintaining authority and unity, and a centralized language understood by a community of people.

They lack a modern self-sustainable economy, have divided authorities, and use multiple languages resulting in many groups being unable to communicate with each other. Prominent theorists who developed the modernist interpretation of nations and nationalism include: Carlton J. In his analysis of the historical changes and development of human societies, Henry Maine noted that the key distinction between traditional societies defined as "status" societies based on family association and functionally diffuse roles for individuals and modern societies defined as "contract" societies where social relations are determined by rational contracts pursued by individuals to advance their interests.

Maine saw the development of societies as moving away from traditional status societies to modern contract societies. Although he recognized the advantages of modern societies, he also criticized them for their cold and impersonal nature that caused alienation while praising the intimacy of traditional communities. Durkheim identified organic solidarity-based societies as modern societies where there exists a division of labour based on social differentiation that causes alienation.

Durkheim claimed that social integration in traditional society required authoritarian culture involving acceptance of a social order. Durkheim claimed that modern society bases integration on the mutual benefits of the division of labour, but noted that the impersonal character of modern urban life caused alienation and feelings of anomie. Max Weber claimed the change that developed modern society and nations is the result of the rise of a charismatic leader to power in a society who creates a new tradition or a rational-legal system that establishes the supreme authority of the state.

Weber's conception of charismatic authority has been noted as the basis of many nationalist governments. Another approach emerging from biology and psychology looks at long-term evolutionary forces that might lead to nationalism. The primordialist perspective is based upon evolutionary theory. This approach has been popular with the general public but is typically rejected by experts. Laland and Brown report that "the vast majority of professional academics in the social sciences not only The evolutionary theory of nationalism perceives nationalism to be the result of the evolution of human beings into identifying with groups, such as ethnic groups, or other groups that form the foundation of a nation.

The primordialist evolutionary views of nationalism often reference the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin as well as Social Darwinist views of the late nineteenth century. Thinkers like Herbert Spencer and Walter Bagehot reinterpreted Darwin's theory of natural selection "often in ways inconsistent with Charles Darwin's theory of evolution" by making unsupported claims of biological difference among groups, ethnicities, races, and nations. Approached through the primordialist perspective, the example of seeing the mobilization of a foreign military force on the nation's borders may provoke members of a national group to unify and mobilize themselves in response.

Critics argue that primordial models relying on evolutionary psychology are based not on historical evidence but on assumptions of unobserved changes over thousands of years and assume stable genetic composition of the population living in a specific area, and are incapable of handling the contingencies that characterize every known historical process. Robert Hislope argues:. While evolutionary theory undoubtedly elucidates the development of all organic life, it would seem to operate best at macro-levels of analysis, "distal" points of explanation, and from the perspective of the long-term.

Hence, it is bound to display shortcomings at micro-level events that are highly contingent in nature. In , English historian G. Gooch argued that "[w]hile patriotism is as old as human association and has gradually widened its sphere from the clan and the tribe to the city and the state, nationalism as an operative principle and an articulate creed only made its appearance among the more complicated intellectual processes of the modern world. Vladimir Lenin supported the concept of self-determination. Joseph Stalin 's Marxism and the National Question declares that "a nation is not a racial or tribal , but a historically constituted community of people;" "a nation is not a casual or ephemeral conglomeration , but a stable community of people"; "a nation is formed only as a result of lengthy and systematic intercourse , as a result of people living together generation after generation"; and, in its entirety: "a nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, and psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

Historians, sociologists and anthropologists have debated different types of nationalism since at least the s. This distinction was popularized in the s by Hans Kohn who described "civic" nationalism as "Western" and more democratic while depicting "ethnic" nationalism as "Eastern" and undemocratic. Anti-colonial nationalism is an intellectual framework that preceded, accompanied and followed the process of decolonization in the mids.

Benedict Anderson defined a nation as a socially constructed community that is co-created by individuals who imagine themselves as part of this group. This concept of nationalism was exemplified by the transformation of settler colonies into nations, while anti-colonial nationalism is exemplified by movements against colonial powers in the s. Nationalist mobilization in French colonial Africa and British colonial India developed "when colonial regimes refused to cede rights to their increasingly well-educated colonial subjects", who formed indigenous elites and strategically adopted and adapted nationalist tactics.

Anderson argues that the racism often experienced as a result of colonial rule and attributed to nationalism is rather due to theories of class. For Gellner, nationalism is ethnic, and state political parties should reflect the ethnic majority in the state. This definition of nationalism also contributes to anti-colonial nationalism, if one conceives of anti-colonial movements to be movements consisting of one specific ethnic group against an outside ruling party. Anti-colonial nationalism is not static, and is defined by different forms of nationalism depending on location. In the anti-colonial movement that took place in the Indian subcontinent, Mahatma Gandhi and his allies in the Indian independence movement argued for a composite nationalism , not believing that an independent Indian nation should be defined by its religious identity.

After independence, especially in countries with particularly diverse populations with historic enmity, there have been a series of smaller independence movements that are also defined by anti-colonialism. Philosopher and scholar Achille Mbembe argues that post-colonialism is a contradictory term, because colonialism is ever present. This is the case with anti-colonialism as well. Anti-colonial nationalism as an intellectual framework persisted into the late 20th century with the resistance movements i n Soviet satellite states, and continues with independence movements in the Arab world in the 21st century.

Civic nationalism defines the nation as an association of people who identify themselves as belonging to the nation, who have equal and shared political rights, and allegiance to similar political procedures. This civic concept of nationalism is exemplified by Ernest Renan in his lecture in " What is a Nation? Civic nationalism is normally associated with liberal nationalism , although the two are distinct, and did not always coincide. On the one hand, until the late 19th and early 20th century adherents to anti-Enlightenment movements such as French Legitimism or Spanish Carlism often rejected the liberal, national unitary state, yet identified themselves not with an ethnic nation but with a non-national dynasty and regional feudal privileges.

Xenophobic movements in long-established Western European states indeed often took a 'civic national' form, rejecting a given group's ability to assimilate with the nation due to its belonging to a cross-border community Irish Catholics in Britain, Ashkenazic Jews in France. On the other hand, while subnational separatist movements were commonly associated with ethnic nationalism, this was not always so, and such nationalists as the Corsican Republic , United Irishmen , Breton Federalist League or Catalan Republican Party could combine a rejection of the unitary civic-national state with a belief in liberal universalism. Liberal nationalism is kind of non- xenophobic nationalism that is claimed to be compatible with liberal values of freedom , tolerance , equality , and individual rights.

Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity to lead meaningful, autonomous lives, [] [] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity to function properly. Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is usually contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Since individuals resident within different parts of the state territory might have little obvious common ground, civic nationalism developed as a way for rulers to both explain a contemporary reason for such heterogeneity and to provide a common purpose Ernest Renan 's classic description in What is a Nation?

Renan argued that factors such as ethnicity, language, religion, economics, geography, ruling dynasty and historic military deeds were important but not sufficient. Needed was a spiritual soul that allowed as a "daily referendum" among the people. German philosopher Monika Kirloskar-Steinbach does not think liberalism and nationalism are compatible, but she points out there are many liberals who think they are. Kirloskar-Steinbach states:. Justifications of nationalism seem to be making a headway in political philosophy.

Its proponents contend that liberalism and nationalism are not necessarily mutually exclusive and that they can in fact be made compatible. Liberal nationalists urge one to consider nationalism not as the pathology of modernity but as an answer to its malaise. For them, nationalism is more than an infantile disease, more than "the measles of mankind" as Einstein once proclaimed it to be. They argue that nationalism is a legitimate way of understanding one's role and place in life. They strive for a normative justification of nationalism which lies within liberal limits.

The main claim which seems to be involved here is that as long as a nationalism abhors violence and propagates liberal rights and equal citizenship for all citizens of its state, its philosophical credentials can be considered to be sound. Creole nationalism is the ideology that emerged in independence movements among the creoles descendants of the colonizers , especially in Latin America in the early 19th century. It was facilitated when French Emperor Napoleon seized control of Spain and Portugal, breaking the chain of control from the Spanish and Portuguese kings to the local governors.

Allegiance to the Napoleonic states was rejected, and increasingly the creoles demanded independence. They achieved it after civil wars — Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the "nation" is defined in terms of ethnicity. However, it is different from a purely cultural definition of "the nation," which allows people to become members of a nation by cultural assimilation ; and from a purely linguistic definition, according to which "the nation" consists of all speakers of a specific language.

Whereas nationalism in and of itself does not imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity or country over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric supremacy or protectionism. The humiliation of being a second-class citizen led regional minorities in multiethnic states, such as Great Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman Empire, to define nationalism in terms of loyalty to their minority culture, especially language and religion. Forced assimilation was anathema. For the politically dominant cultural group, assimilation was necessary to minimize disloyalty and treason and therefore became a major component of nationalism.

A second factor for the politically dominant group was competition with neighboring states—nationalism involved a rivalry, especially in terms of military prowess and economic strength. Economic nationalism, or economic patriotism, is an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation , even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. Feminist critique interprets nationalism as a mechanism through which sexual control and repression are justified and legitimised, often by a dominant masculine power.

The gendering of nationalism through socially constructed notions of masculinity and femininity not only shapes what masculine and feminine participation in the building of that nation will look like, but also how the nation will be imagined by nationalists. History, political ideologies, and religions place most nations along a continuum of muscular nationalism. Nations and gender systems are mutually supportive constructions : the nation fulfils the masculine ideals of comradeship and brotherhood. There are different types of nationalism including Risorgimento nationalism and Integral nationalism. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany , according to Alter and Brown, were examples of integral nationalism. Some of the qualities that characterize integral nationalism are anti-individualism , statism , radical extremism, and aggressive-expansionist militarism.

The term Integral Nationalism often overlaps with fascism, although many natural points of disagreement exist. Integral nationalism arises in countries where a strong military ethos has become entrenched through the independence struggle, when, once independence is achieved, it is believed that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state. Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism.

Pan-nationalism is unique in that it covers a large area span. Pan-nationalism focuses more on "clusters" of ethnic groups. Pan-Slavism is one example of Pan-nationalism. The goal is to unite all Slavic people into one country. They did succeed by uniting several south Slavic people into Yugoslavia in Left-wing nationalism, occasionally known as socialist nationalism, not to be confused with the German fascist National Socialism , [] is a political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism.

Many nationalist movements are dedicated to national liberation , in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors. Anti-revisionist Marxist—Leninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin's early work Marxism and the National Question and his socialism in one country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions.

National-anarchists claim that those of different ethnic or racial groups would be free to develop separately in their own tribal communes while striving to be politically meritocratic , economically non- capitalist , ecologically sustainable and socially and culturally traditional. A military assistance pact was signed in granting the United States a year lease on designated military bases in the country.

By an international treaty concluded in between the United States in respect of its then overseas territory, the Philippine Archipelago and the United Kingdom in respect of its then protectorate, the State of North Borneo the two powers agreed the international boundaries between those respective territories. However, by a supplemental international treaty concluded at the same time, the two powers agreed that those islands, although part of the Philippines Archipelago, would remain under the administration of the State of North Borneo 's British North Borneo Company.

On the 4th of July, , the Republic of the Philippines was born. It became the successor to the U. Pursuant to a supplemental international agreement, the transfer of administration became effective on October 16, Roxas did not stay long in office because of a heart attack as he was speaking at Clark Air Base on April 15, He was succeeded by his vice president Elpidio Quirino. The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April , and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino , was elevated to the presidency.

Laurel and winning a four-year term. World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas known as "Huks" , who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression.

Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May Enhancing President Manuel Roxas ' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits. As President, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War.

One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force PAF : President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight. He restored the people's trust in the military and in the government. Magsaysay's administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free in modern Philippine history; his rule is often cited as the Philippines's "Golden Years".

Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the country gained international recognition in sports, culture, and foreign affairs. The Philippines placed second on a ranking of Asia's clean and well-governed countries. Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities.

Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.

Garcia and Emmanuel Pelaez as a vice president. President Macapagal changed the independence day of the Philippines from July 4 to June Macapagal ran for re-election in , but was defeated by his former party -mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos , who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated public works projects and intensified tax collection. An explosion which killed opposition lawmakers during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, , led Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Protests surged and the writ was restored on January 11, Amid the growing popularity of the opposition, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, , by virtue of Proclamation No.

Marcos justified the declaration by citing the threat of Communist insurgency and the alleged ambush of defense secretary Juan Ponce Enrile. A constitutional convention , which had been called for in to replace the colonial Constitution , continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early , changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society", which he would rule for more than two decades. However, the economy suffered after incurring massive debt and downgrading prospects of the Philippines under martial rule, while the wife of the president, Imelda Marcos , lived in high society.

The human rights abuses [] [15] under the dictatorship particularly targeted political opponents, student activists, [] journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought back against the administration. Based on the documentation of Amnesty International , Task Force Detainees of the Philippines , and similar human rights monitoring entities, [] the dictatorship was marked by 3, known extrajudicial killings, [] 35, documented tortures, 77 'disappeared', and 70, incarcerations.

Some 2, of the 3, murder victims were tortured and mutilated before their bodies were dumped in various places for the public to discover - a tactic meant to sow fear among the public, [] [] which came to be known as "salvaging. Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose own health faced obstacles due to lupus. The political opposition boycotted the presidential elections , which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos , in protest over his control over the results.

In , opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections Comelec , declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel , an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by local and international observers. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution , forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, The administration of Marcos has been called by various sources as a kleptocracy [] [] [] and a conjugal dictatorship.

Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional " Freedom Constitution ". The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao , and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress. Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.

Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left dead and , homeless. During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts , the most serious occurring in December In , the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a year extension of the U. In the elections , Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos , endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years. He legalized the Communist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government.

In June , Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents. In October , the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front MNLF , a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao , was signed in , ending the year-old struggle. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.

On his presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the rape-slay case of UPLB students Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in Joseph Estrada , a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector. He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the constitution. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines.

However it was not successful in amending the constitution. In October , however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses. In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory.

Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion. She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, In , a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained. Halfway through her second term, Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted to push for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government, which critics describe would be a move that would allow her to stay in power as Prime Minister.

Her term saw the completion of infrastructure projects like Line 2 in Numerous other scandals such as the Maguindanao massacre , wherein 58 people were killed, and the unsuccessful NBN-ZTE broadband deal took place in the dawn of her administration. She formally ended her term as president in wherein she was succeeded by Senator Benigno Aquino III and ran for a seat in congress the same year becoming the second president after Jose P. Laurel to run for lower office following the presidency. He is a bachelor and the son of former Philippines president Corazon C. His administration claimed to be focused on major reforms that would bring greater transparency, reduced poverty, reduced corruption, and a booming market which will give birth to a newly industrialized nation.

Just as with his predecessor, however, Aquino's administration has been marked with a mix of success and scandal since his inauguration, beginning with the Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila and Hong Kong for a time affecting major events such as Wikimania The Sultanate of Panay , the newset of 21 in the country, was formally established covering 10 Muslims in the island. Tensions regarding Sabah due to the Sultanate of Sulu 's claim gradually rose during the early years of his administration. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education. The country was then hit by Typhoon Yolanda Haiyan on November 8, , which heavily devastated the Visayas. From January 15 to 19, , Pope Francis stayed in the Philippines for a series of publicity tours and paid visits to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan.

Under his presidency, the Philippines has had controversial clashes with the People's Republic of China on a number of issues such as the standoff in Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea and the dispute over the Spratly islands. This resulted in the proceedings of the Philippines to file a sovereignty case against China in a global arbitration tribunal. Later on in , the Aquino Administration then filed a case to the Arbitration Tribunal in The Hague which challenged Beijing's claim in the South China Sea after Chinese ships were accused of harassing a small Philippine vessel carrying goods for stationed military personnel in the South Thomas Shoal where an old Philippine ship had been stationed for many years.

On March 23, , Diwata-1 was launched to the International Space Station ISS , becoming the country's first micro-satellite and the first satellite to be built and designed by Filipinos. On the other hand, Camarines Sur 3rd District representative Leni Robredo won with the second narrowest margin in history, against Senator Bongbong Marcos. Under his presidency, the government launched a hour complaint office accessible to the public through a nationwide hotline, , and changed the nationwide emergency telephone number from to On November 8, , the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled in favor of the burial of the late president Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng Mga Bayani , the country's official cemetery for heroes, provoking protests from various groups.

The burial was done on November 18, , in private. Later in the afternoon, the event was made public. In a bid for attaining inclusive economic growth and the improvement quality of life in the country, Duterte launched DuterteNomics , with infrastructure development and industrialization being a significant part of its policy. Infrastructure Plan , which aims to usher in "a golden age of infrastructure" in the country, began in It includes the development of transport infrastructure such as railways, roads, airports, and seaports, as well as other infrastructure such as irrigation and flood control projects.

It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects. In , Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act , which provides for free tuition and exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions. He also signed 20 new laws, including the Universal Health Care Act, the creation of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development , establishing a national cancer control program, and allowing subscribers to keep their mobile numbers for life. Under his presidency, the Bangsamoro Organic Law was legislated into law.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. September Part of a series on the. Prehistory pre— Prehispanic period — Spanish period — American period Post-independence Under Marcos Communist rebellion Moro conflict People Power Revolution. Contemporary —present. Main article: Timeline of Philippine history. Main article: Prehistory of the Philippines. See also: Kalanay Cave.

Main article: History of the Philippines — Kedatuan of Madja-as. Rajahnate of Butuan. Sultanate of Sulu. Kedatuan of Dapitan. Sultanate of Maguindanao. Rajahnate of Cebu. Sultanate of Lanao. Chiefdom of Taytay. Main article: Tondo historical polity. Main article: Cainta historical polity. Main article: Namayan. Main article: Caboloan. Main article: Ma-i. Main article: Kedatuan of Madja-as. Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating an ancient kadatuan or tumao noble class Visayan couple. A royal couple of the Visayans. Main article: Rajahnate of Cebu.

Main article: Rajahnate of Butuan. Main article: Sultanate of Sulu. Main article: Sultanate of Maguindanao. Main article: Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. Main article: Bruneian Empire. Main article: Lucoes. Main article: Kedatuan of Dapitan. Main article: Spanish—Moro conflict. The native costumes Barong Tagalog and the earlier variants of Baro't saya of the females, were developed during the Spanish era. Main article: British occupation of Manila. Main article: Philippine Revolution. Main article: Philippine—American War. Main article: Insular Government of the Philippine Islands. Main article: Commonwealth of the Philippines. Main article: Agricultural Land Reform Code. See also: Land reform in the Philippines.

Main articles: Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos and Human rights abuses of the Marcos dictatorship. Main article: History of the Philippines —present. Further information: —90 Philippine coup attempts. Main article: Presidency of Rodrigo Duterte. Philippines portal. May 1, Bibcode : Natur. PMID S2CID Journal of Human Evolution. April Comptes Rendus Palevol. Billings; N. Goudswaard eds. Piakandatu ami Dr. Howard P. The Negrito groups are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Comparative Austronesian Series. ANU Press. ISBN Retrieved October 9, Landa Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage.

International Journal of Historical Archaeology. JSTOR An Examination of a Historical Puzzle". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. Archived from the original on October 21, Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture. Abhinav Publications. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Global Vision. State and society in the Philippines. OCLC William Morrow. Journal of Magellan's Voyage in French. National Quincentennial Committee. March 14, Basques In The Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press.

GMA News Online. Retrieved January 18, University of Alabama Press. Human Biology. Archived from the original PDF on March 23, Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26 : 72— Archived from the original on July 7, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo PMC Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on February 28, November The American Journal of Human Genetics. In Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter eds.

Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay peninsula. Psychology Press. Ancient jades map 3, years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia. Casino, George R. Ellis, Wilhelm G. Pathos of Origin. Notes from central Taiwan: Our brother to the south.

Taiwan Times. Birthplace of Austronesians is Taiwan, capital was Taitung: Scholar. Taiwan News. Hung, H. Semantic Scholar. War and peace in precolonial Philippines. The Manila Times. University of Hawaii Press. Asian Perspectives. Sundaland: Tracing The Cradle of Civilizations. Indonesia Hydro Media. August 7, Wiley, Mark ed. A Question of Origins. Tuttle Publishing. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. Retrieved February 15, Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines.

The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density. National Museum of the Philippines.

February 10, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. March 27, Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved January 2, Salazar at Mendoza-Urban. State Department. Mangyan Heritage Center. Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved January 7, Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. In Our Image. Retrieved August 24, Oxford Business Group. Vikings of the Far East. New York: Vantage Press, NAID Field Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Series. Angeles: Holy Angel University Press. Relation of the Conquest of the Island of Luzon. The Philippine Islands, Ohio, Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Pasay city government website. City Government of Pasay.

Archived from the original on September 21, Retrieved February 5, Excavations at Santa Ana. China Studies Program. De la Salle University. Archived from the original PDF on July 24, Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original PDF on September 23, Retrieved September 25, The history of Agoo : — La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved October 27, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society.

Chau Ju-Kua, writing in the thirteenth century, probably was the first to mention that certain ferocious raiders of China's Fukien coast probably came by way of the southern portion of the island of Formosa, He referred to them as the Pi-sho-ye. Already conceived while he was in Binanua-an, and as the titular head of all the datus left behind by Datu Puti, Datu Sumakwel thought of some kind of system as to how he could exercise his powers given him by Datu Puti over all the other datus under his authority. Wonderful Indonesia. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved July 22, De la Salle University, History Department. Volume Xavier University Press.

Page A Philippine Leaf". Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved July 16, Asia Mindanaw: Dialogue of Peace and Development : 2. Retrieved April 24, However, that article has been renderred outdated due to the discovery of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription in which proved links between Java and Manila, which makes her dismissal of the Raffles assertion null and the Raffles assertion feasible. The River Dwellers. Pasig : The River of Life. Unilever Philippines. History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past. Rex Bookstore, Inc. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved January 13, National Historical Commission. Retrieved March 16, Retrieved February 7, Angeles City: By the author.

William Henry Scott January 1, pp. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra. The term 'Wa' has meant Japan from old times, and is used in contradistinction to things from foreign countries such as Han China and Yo Western Europe. Yamato-kotoba words of Japanese origin , Yamato-damashii Japanese spirit , Yamato-nadeshiko woman who displays the feminine virtues of old Japan , Yamato-e painting a traditional Japanese style painting of the late Heian and Kamakura period dealing with Japanese themes , etc.

This term has been often used as a word indicating phenomena considered to be unchanged in this country since ancient times. Inseparable Relationship between Religions and Japanese Culture From ancient times, a culture forming Japan, or a mode of life or custom of people living in this country has rooted in the sense of worth based on a religion, and an influence of religion can be seen in various scenes such as industries including agriculture, forestry, fishery, civil engineering and construction, or seasonal events and festivals including New Years festivals, Shichi-go-san a day of prayer for the healthy growth of young children , etc.

From ancient times, Japan has had a religious culture based on polytheism yao yorozu no kami eight million gods worshiping nature or spirits like shamanism or animism including the 'Shinto religion. As in the case of other East Asian countries, Japan has also accepted 'Taoism' and 'Confucianism' there is an opinion that Confucianism is a philosophy or thought, but not a religion , but was not influenced by those as much as the Korean and China.

Inyogogyo the cosmic dual forces yin and yang and the five elements metal, wood, water, fire and earth and Hakke eight trigrams which originated from Taoism were extremely prosperous during a period from the Nara period to the Heian period. Along with Onmyoji Master of Yin yang gaining power, their thoughts which became a mode of life were transformed to Japan-specific thoughts, and have been passed down to the modern age. Major people who directly accepted Confucianism were not only the samurai and townspeople who mastered Sinology, but Confucianism also influenced common people in Japan in an indirect manner.

It is said that Budo Japanese martial arts was also based on the Shinto religion, and developed into arts having kaigan seishin spiritual awakening and philosophy through practices after thoughts of Taoism, Confucianism and Zen sect were added. Many of the various traditions and customs originated from foreign Buddhism, and such foreign Buddhism formed Japanese religions and cultures while it interacted with the Shinto religion.

Syncretization of Shinto with Other Religions In Japan, the Shinto religion and Buddhism have coexisted and amalgamated for a long time in the form of a synchronization of Shinto and Buddhism. However, in the modern times, the new Meiji Government performed a re-separation of Buddhism and Shinto, and the Shinto religion which was treated as State Shinto was merged with militarism, and became a means of hegemonism. In the era of State Shinto, the religious position of the Shinto religion was made indistinct the Government united the Shinto religion with the Emperor and obligated the people to respect the god under the theory that 'the Shinto religion was not a religion' Jinjahishukyoron theory that the Shinto religion was not a religion , and the Shinto religion was treated as an absolute thing.

However, shrines and the Shinto religion were separated from politics after the war, and the Shinto religion has been officially treated as one of the religious fields since then. Although a pure sense of worship for religion was not realized, an environment of present-day Japanese spirit and culture was formed based on the Shinto religion from the ancient times while adding mixtures of various kinds of foreign religions including Buddhism, Esoteric Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, or 'Christianity' also including a Christian culture in old times.

It is impossible to talk about the essence of Japanese culture and spirit without religions focusing on the Shinto religion. As a characteristic which is broadly seen in traditional performing arts, traditional sports, or in manners in Japanese daily life such as bowing, civility and rules of etiquette and table manners, a respect for 'kata' standard form of a movement, posture, etc. In many cases, this kata implicitly contains a sense of respect or consideration for others because of an influence of jukyo dotoku Confucian ethics or based on shinsho real nature of avoiding a conflict with others and respecting a harmony. It implies a peaceful unity and conformity within a social group, in which members prefer the continuation of a harmonious community over their personal interests.

Wa is considered integral to Japanese society, and derives from traditional Japanese family values. Individuals who break the idea of Wa to further their own purposes are brought in line either overtly or covertly, by reprimands from a superior or by their family or colleagues tacit disapproval. Hierarchical structures exist in Japanese society primarily to ensure the continuation of Wa. Public disagreement with the party line is generally suppressed in the interests of preserving the communal harmony. Japanese businesses encourage Wa in the workplace, with employees typically given a career for life in order to foster a strong association with their colleagues and firm.

Rewards and bonuses are usually given to groups, rather than individuals, further enforcing the concept of group unity. Haji shame is said to form the core of Japanese culture. Japanese culture is described as "shame culture " in contrast to Western "guilt culture". In the west one can say that one's behavior is based, or dictated, by a sense of guilt resulting from one's actions. The feeling of guilt in the west is an internal feeling; the feeling of shame in Japan is an external feeling.

This is not to suggest that the west is shameless, but rather that historically, Japan, has placed a great deal upon the feeling of shame. One can look to the samurai period for an example of shame. For a samurai, being put to shame in front of the public was as good as death. The dichotomy of "Hare and Ke" is a traditional world-view of Japanese people accompanied by time theory. In folklore and cultural anthropology, "Hare and Ke" mean the following. Hare noticeably cheerful and formal situations or such places represents rituals, festivals and annual events that are "non-ordinary," while Ke represents "ordinary," that is everyday life.

Food, shelter and clothing, behavior and the types of language used at the time of hare were definitely distinguished from those of Ke. Originally, hare was a concept that referred to specific changes or milestones. The origin of the word hare is "hare" fair weather. It is used in expressions such as "Hare no butai" a situation so important that it happens almost only once in a life time and "Hare gi" clothes worn at rituals that take place at milestones or specific changes.

On the other hand, everyday wear was called "Ke gi," but it was no longer used as a word after the Meiji period. In addition, nowadays, simply good weather is called "Hare. On Hare days, food and drinks such as mochi rice cakes , sekihan glutinous rice cooked with azuki beans , white rice, fish with the head and the tail, and Japanese rice wine were consumed. These items were not consumed in everyday life. Furthermore, dishes for such occasions were for Hare days only, and they were not used on a daily basis. Wabi and Sabi are sense of beauty in Japan. In general, it refers to a simplicity and serenity. Originally, Wabi and Sabi were two different concepts. Wabi The meaning "Wabi," the noun form of the verb "Wabu," is better understood from its adjective form "Wabishii" wretched ; that is, it means "an inferior state as opposite to splendor.

In the extreme, it may mean a "poor look" or "poverty. During the Edo period, the fundamental sense of beauty of tea ceremony became established and even famous books emerged such as "Shoo Wabi no Bun" Shoo essay on wabi defining wabi as "honestly and prudence," and "Nanporoku" which described Wabi as "Buddha"s world of purity. As a result, it was established to represent Japan"s sense of beauty. Sabi Sabi is the noun form of the verb "Sabu," and originally means the deteriorated state over the passage of time secular distortion.

It was quoted as being similar to the beauty of patina green corrosion in English, and the atmosphere that green corrosion and so on creates is expressed as patina. Originally it was not a good concept, however, in "Tsurezuregusa" Essays in Idleness in Kamakura period, there was a description thought to deeply appreciate a book that became old and it has been verified that around this time the meaning of discovering the beauty of an antiquated state arose. During the Muromachi period, it became treasured as important especially in the world of Haikai seventeen-syllable verse and was even incorporated into the Noh music, and so on, and was systematized into theory. The elegant simplicity of Sabi in Haikai is a common characteristic especially among old things and elderly persons and according to Torahiko TERADA, it oozes out from the inside of something old and is a beauty that doesn"t relate to the exterior, and so on.

A typical example is a stone on which moss grows. Stones that no one moves grows moss on the surface and become green in the climate in Japan. Japanese people used it to resemble thing coming out from the inside of the stone. Because it is an attitude of seeking beauty from an antiquated state, it is deeply related to antiquarianism taste for collecting items. For instance, while there are different features seen in British antiques, and so on, there are also some things in common. While the elegant simplicity of sabi places more emphasis on the action of nature, antiques in the West emphasize the historical respects. Uchi-Soto in the Japanese language is the distinction between in-groups Uchi, "inside" and out-groups Soto, "outside".

This distinction between groups is a fundamental part of Japanese social custom and even directly reflected in the Japanese language itself. The basic concept revolves around dividing people into in-groups and out-groups. When speaking with someone from an out-group, the out-group must be honored, and the in-group humbled. That is achieved with special features of the Japanese language, which conjugates verbs based on both tense and politeness.

It may also include social concepts such as gift giving or serving. The Uchi-Soto relationship can lead to someone making great personal sacrifices to honor a visitor or other person in an out-group. One of the complexities of the Uchi-Soto relationship lies in the fact that groups are not static; they may overlap and change over time and according to situation. Uchi-Soto groups may be conceptualized as a series of overlapping circles. One's position within the group and relative to other groups depends on the context, situation, and time of life.

For example, a person usually has a family, a job, and other groups or organizations to which they belong. Their position within the various groups and in relation to other groups changes according to circumstances at a given moment. The workplace is a typical example: the employees below a middle manager are in his in-group and may be spoken to using casual speech. His bosses or even, in large companies, people in other departments, are in an out-group, and must be spoken to politely. However, when dealing with someone from another company, the middle manager's entire company is the in-group, and the other company is the out-group. Thus, it is acceptable for the middle manager to speak about his own company, even his bosses, in non-honorific speech.

That emphasizes that his company is one group, and although the group may have subdivisions inside of itself, it does not include the other company. For example, when speaking with subordinates, a manager might omit the honorific -san, but he would be unlikely to do so when addressing his superiors. On the other hand, when dealing with an outsider, essentially any person not directly connected to his company, he omits all honorifics to speak about anyone in the company, including his superiors.

However, when the same manager speaks to a subordinate about the subordinate's family, he refers to the subordinate's family, which is the subordinate's in-group but not his, in polite terms. However, he refers to his own family, which is his in-group but not the subordinate's, in plain language. Thus, the manager and the subordinate both refer to their own families as kazoku family and to the other's family as go-kazoku honorable family. In addition to features of the Japanese language, Uchi-Soto also extends to social actions.

For instance, in a Japanese home the most senior family member, usually the father or grandfather, normally takes a bath first; the rest of the family follows in order of seniority. A visitor to the home, however, is offered the first bath. Similarly, an overnight guest is offered the best sleeping arrangements even if it greatly inconveniences the rest of the family. That case is a difficult point for Westerners in Japan, who usually have to taught to be polite by refusing accommodations that inconvenience others.

Visitors and tourists are universally Soto. Theoretically, it is possible for a foreigner to become a part of Japanese society. However, in reality, it is very difficult for non-Japanese to be accepted as an "Uchi" member of Japanese society. First, Honne is the term to indicate one's real feelings and desires. These feelings and desires may sometimes differ from what are expected or demanded by one's social status, so that it often happens that Honne is not expressed honestly in Japan. On the other hand, the term Tatemae refers to one's behaviors and opinions to be expressed officially. These behaviors and opinions are expected and demanded from one's social status, and are sometimes at odds with one's real feelings and desires.

The Honne—Tatemae divide is considered by some to be of paramount importance in Japanese culture.

In the s the leadership Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System the expense of other territories. The key Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan in Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System, demonstrating the military advancement of non-Europeans in a modern Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System. To apply, place; has eaten. He restored the people's trust in the military and in the Analysis: The Gettysburg Address. That state broke up in the s. At this time limited interactions with Hamlet Ophelianity And Madness Analysis Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System and intellectuals led to the rise of Compare And Contrast Japanese And European Feudal System Britain's East India Company and the beginning of Japan's Dutch Studies.

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