① Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office

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Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office



El Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office eBook. Volumen 1 eBook. However, the Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office of the ultra-conservative religious organization began in the realm of intellectual thought and scientific inquiry. ella minnow pea Lefebvre, violently imposing sovereignty over a Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office crushes time; Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office Koselleck, on the other hand, notes that extracting a temporal Type My Essay from the flow of history always translates to a heightened Scarlet Mirror Activity Report of physical environment. Thouret et V.

Writing Your Personal Narrative

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Employer Branding eBook. L'associacionisme Professional eBook. Els Secrets De Les Herbes Ventriloquia Inalambrica eBook. La Catedral De Barcelona. Horror 2 eBook. Mapa 1: Overall, the work in the exhibition is abstract and spare, giving the problematic outsider category a new spin. LE, through Jan. Born in Vietnam, Mr. This small exhibition presents high-concept photographic and sculptural works about the Vietnam War and its effects, as well as a pair of sculptures representing communications satellites that satirize Vietnams plans to enter the space age. Large, expertly made color images by a Canadian photographer show industrial subjects like marble quarries in India, a tire dump in California and modern development in China.

Just over 30 portrait paintings by Hans Memling survive from the 15th century. Of those, about 20 are now on view at the Frick Collection. Thats a whale of a lot of paintings by any major early northern European artist to be in any one place at one time, and there is little question that this show will figure on any short list of outstanding events of the year. It immerses us in two enormous, endlessly fascinating narratives: the history of painting and the history of Russia, forming a remarkable tribute to the endurance of the medium and the country, and the inescapable interconnectedness of art and life. A very personal, whimsical exhibition by this well-known Japanese photographer, who incorporates into his work artifacts that he has collected, particularly from East Asia and Japan.

Sugimotos reach is long, and his range is broad, from fossils to textiles to undersea dioramas to Japanese calligraphy to the Trylon and Perisphere a minisculpture that symbolized the New York Worlds Fair of It may not be all that enlightening, but as an artists personal survey, it comes off. Whos Jewish, who isnt, and, by the way, what is a Jew, anyway? They are not easy questions, as this intense who-are-we exploration makes clear. Ten projects by 13 artists try to help break the stereotype of American Jews as uniformly white, middle-class and of European descent.

Using photography and video, they have interpreted their missions broadly, from the Korean-born Nikki S. Lees meticulous staging of a Jewish wedding with herself as the bride, to Andrea Robbins and Max Bechers look at the thriving shtetl established by Lubavitcher Hasidic Jews in the rural community of Postville, Iowa. An exhibition as rare as it is sublime brings the divine Angelico down to earth, showing how he had the best of both worlds, using the innovations of the Renaissance to parlay the radiant colors, gilded surfaces and doll-like figures of Gothic art into a final flowering. Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street, Like all examples of great humor, it is, at heart, also a sneakily serious affair.

Its subjects include the depths of human gullibility and the conjuring power of photography, whose technology, we may forget in the cynical day of digital manipulation and Photoshop, seemed unfathomable to so many people a century and more ago. The exhibitions deeper subject is the dreamer in all of us. See above. Think again before deciding youve got a case of van Gogh fatigue and skipping this exhibition -- not just because the focus is on drawings, which on the whole are less well-known than the paintings and were so important to the early spread of his reputation, but also because in the flesh, great art, no matter how often it has been dully reproduced or mistaken for a price tag or overrun by crowds, retains its dignity and originality and utter strangeness.

Frankly, the whole show, even including the bad drawings, is unforgettable. The timing was off for the big Odilon Redon retrospective in Chicago in The art worlds mind was on identity politics and neo-conceptualism. Now theres another Redon survey, smaller, very beautiful, culminating in his lush, pixilated late paintings. And the timing for it is just right. Here is the complete range of shape-shifting, dizzily colored pictures that Elizabeth Murray has produced over four decades. The colors are noisy, the harmonies pungent, the scale big and bold. While art-world fashion has drifted here and there, Ms. Murray has stuck to her craft, with all its difficulties and at the occasional cost of failure and neglect.

Her show is a meaty, openhearted, eye-popping event. Lauder and Serge Sabarsky Collections, through Feb. This extensive exhibition mostly of works on paper gives an informative account of the regrettably brief career of one of the 20th centurys great draftsmen and romantic rebels. Schieles self-portraits and drawings and watercolors of sexy young women still burn with fires of narcissistic yearning, erotic desire and bohemian dissent. When Peter Hujar died in , he was a figure of acute interest to a small group of fans and unknown to practically everyone else. His photographs of desiccated corpses in Sicilian catacombs and studio portraits of New Yorks downtown demi-monde were a gorgeous shock, and their cocktail of Nadar, Weegee and Vogue shaped the work of many younger artists.

This surveyish sampling includes several of his recurrent themes: portraits of people and animals, landscapes, still-lifes and erotica. Sensuality and mortality are the binders throughout, inseparable. Though this artist exhibition of mostly contemporary abstractionists lacks bite as a whole, every individual painter in it is worthy of attention. Not exactly a well-known name today, except to devotees of American Modernism, this German-born architect-turned-painter was one of the major American artists of the early 20th century. Most of his compositions are unpeopled landscapes depicting houses and building fragments in brilliantly stylized settings in which trees, clouds, smokestacks, telephone poles, water and snow are rendered as rhythmic and dramatic shapes that play off one another almost musically.

For 40 years, Richard Tuttle has murmured the ecstasies of paying close attention to the worlds infinitude of tender incidents, making oddball assemblages of prosaic ephemera, which, at first glance, belie their intense deliberation and rather monumental ambition. Out of cord, tin, Styrofoam, florists wire and bubble wrap he has devised objects whose status is not quite sculpture or drawing or painting but some combination of the three, and whose exquisiteness is akin to that of jewelry. His outstanding retrospective is a cross between a kindergarten playroom and a medieval treasury.

At once disciplined architecture and intuitive sculptural drawing, the piece invites you to enter and explore it, while conveying a disturbing sense of matter out of place. How often do you get to view a drawing from the inside out? Zabriskie Gallery, 41 East 57th Street , through Dec. His provocative nude icons are here in abundance, but also evident is his interest in Matisse, Picasso and Mondrian. This lively show of 44 works on paper, arranged by his daughter, Kate, also reveals that Wesselmann was a compulsive draftsman, producing and revising many color and compositional studies for his finished works.

The centerpiece, Mobile Home, is an arrangement of domestic objects strung on fine cables between metal traffic barriers; it takes a moment to realize that the toys, chairs, suitcases and other items are slowly rolling back and forth on tiny wheels. An installation upstairs consists of a circle of slowly pulsing light bulbs plugged into intricately interwoven cables. Alexander and Bonin, 10th Avenue, between 18th and 19th Streets, , through Dec. Hayward presents a recent series of single-color paintings made of extremely thick, crisscrossing brush strokes. The optical and tactile combine to exceptionally satisfying effect. Cue, West 25th Street, , through Dec.

Leipzig paints affectionate, exhaustively detailed portraits of people in their homes or workplaces with a deliberately unpolished touch. One subject is a man with a shaved head and a goatee relaxing on his living room sofa in the midst of an amazingly extensive collection of sports memorabilia. Henoch, West 25th Street, , through Dec. Delany An entrancing animated video based on a famous science-fiction novel tours a mazelike series of empty rooms. Murray Guy, West 17th Street, , through Dec. Johnson Kim Simonsson Under the influence of Japanese manga cartoons, this Finnish ceramicist makes large, monochromatic sculptures of wide-eyed, otherworldly girls and deer.

Nancy Margolis, West 25th Street, , through Nov. Johnson Other Galleries Hans Hofmann: The Legacy Hofmann was one of the few who made it into the art history hall of fame as both teacher and painter. Along with three works by the master himself, this exhibition presents abstract and semi-abstract paintings by disciples who were either directly taught or deeply influenced by him, including Ludwig Sander, Robert De Niro, Louisa Matthiasdottir and Laurie Fendrich.

New-style political art, as often as not, obscures its intentions, makes you wonder what its up to and goes for confusion, as in this shrewd, dematerialized group exhibition on the subject of disinformation, a passive form of political deceit that tells lies through the omission of facts. The idea is that the less people know about what their government is doing, the less likely they are to raise a fuss. Smith System in Chaos: New Art Brut From the Czech Republic Four fascinating Czech outsiders: Zdenek Koseks small, congested bubble diagrams chart unfathomable verbal associations; Lubos Plnys expansive, finely detailed drawings offer delirious lessons in human anatomy; Zbynek Semeraks small, delicately busy works on paper convey what seems to be a medieval iconography of religion and architecture; and Leos Wertheimers large drawings portray locomotives with mechanical precision.

Johnson Robert Therrien, Table and Six Chairs In a vast corporate atrium stand a table and six chairs that are wholly ordinary-looking except for their gigantic size -- the chair backs rise to almost nine feet, and the top of the table is over six feet. Therrien transformed his own kitchen furniture into painted metal monuments that make the viewer feel like the protagonist of Jack and the Beanstalk. Johnson Last Chance Eighth Annual International Juried Botanical Art Exhibition The old-fashioned art of botanical illustration lives on, as evinced by this selection of finely made drawings and watercolors by more than 40 artists.

Many are routinely competent, but some, like a small, intense picture of a gnarly root ball by Jean Emmons, are remarkable for both what and how they represent. Johnson Landscape: Myth and Memory Miniature ruins built of tiny bricks on rocky landscapes made of clay by Charles Simmonds; large, faux-antique photographs of Egyptian pyramids by Lynn Davis; an enormous, crusty book by Anselm Kiefer open to the photographic image of ancient architectural remains; and archetypal circles painted and photographed by Richard Long all add up to a nicely choreographed collective fantasy about primordial civilizations. The efforts of Corey McCorkle, O.

A sound piece by Trisha Donnelly will engulf the building for the last 20 minutes of the shows run. The image appears to be a photo of a photo, with Happy Valentines scrawled across it, followed by a love-heart handwritten in a gold marker pen over part of the shot. It appears to be a photo of the couple from the late 90s as the pair married in. The artists latest show, featuring banal images of love hearts and butterflies, looks like an attempt to squeeze money out of innocent punters.. There is no reason for his latest exhibition except to squeeze a few thousand quid out of punters innocent enough to think a Damien Hirst print makes a cool gift for Valentines Day.

Valentines Day is all about love and, for some, how to show it while spending the least amount of money possible. Here are deals for the romantics. Worlds Largest StarbucksDate! Friday, February 13th from 2 P. Valentines Day is Saturday, and boy oh boy, Hoda is ready. KLG: For somebody like. The most awaited day for all the love birds around the world is here. Its time for Valentines Day.

It is the day to show your love, your care, your affection, your bond, your feelings towards your. You upload pictures of you and your. For some Valentines Day is a day to show your sweetheart how much you love them, others see it as a time to get some great candy. And some people just see it as another day. What do you do? Saturday marks the second-to-last Valentines Day that the Obamas will spend as the first couple, but a review of their past celebrations show that they tend to keep the holiday low-key. From spending. HappyValentinesDay -mo pic. Valentines Day brings with it the madness of love. For all the people waiting for this day, get ready to woo your partner with loads of love and attention.

So the closest day of valentines week, Happy Kiss Day is here. Love is in the air and what better way to share it than with images? V-Day is all about showing that special someone how you really feel and helping others do the same. Social media is an excellent platform to do so we have compiled some of the best. Finally the day has come for which we all were waiting for. Yes, we are talking about Happy Valentines Day , a day to celebrate joy of love and happiness with the people we love the most. This years Valentines Day is very special considering the. On Valentine Day, lovers try and send precious gifts to each other, which reflect their bond of love and affection towards each other. Valentine Day helps in making relationships much stronger.

Image Credit: Jyoti Desale. Valentines Day, we take a sentimental journey viewing memorable local pairings throughout our history. We have power couples, who made a mark in business, politics or philanthropy. Maybe how they dress, or something they. Its Valentines Day tomorrow, and I will be spending it as usual in a bath of ewes milk shared with my wife, in a candlelit room, drinking champagne and gazing into the deep pools of each others shining eyes as we contemplate our mutual awesomeness. Romance was certainly in the air on Saturday for Guy and Jules Sebastian, as the pair celebrated their seventh Valentines Day as a married couple.

Taking to Instagram, year-old Australian singer Guy shared a sweet snap of the pair enjoying a tender. Or, as men like to call it, Extortion Day. Men always want to be a womans first love -- women like to be a mans last romance. But like we said Valentines Day is not just restricted to couples any more. Happy Valentine Day ! Imaging: Facebook Edited by Shweta Parande. Send top romantic Hindi shayaris to send your loved one on February 14 on Valentines Day. Have your parents ever asked you if youre dating someone, and just to get out of the situation, you lie and say, Yes, I am.

His name is Rick Jagger? Me neither. But one new company is betting that many people do feel very awkward about. One of the more unpredictable summer festivals presents new and multidisciplinary work. This years theme is Carousel of Progress. Here Arts Center, Avenue of the Americas, Suzanne Somers, star of Threes Company, bares her soul in this one-woman show about her life. Be nice. Latest jukebox musical with a Yoko approved biographical story of the beloved singer boasts three rare and unpublished tunes to go with all your old favorites Broadhurst Theater, 44th Street, Through July Venues in and around Lincoln Center Opens August 3.

What hath gay marriage wrought? Find out in the Five Lesbian Brotherss comic spin on Greek tragedy, which they are calling the feel weird lesbian tragicomedy of the year. Brian Friels first play to receive major attention is a bittersweet comedy about a down-on-his-luck Irishman is there any other kind in the theater? Inflated to Broadway proportions, its a mind-numbing holler Palace Theater, Broadway, at 47th Street, Somerset Maugham.

Kate Burton stars as a well-heeled English wife who scarcely raises an eyebrow at her husbands philandering, scandalizing her friends. Maughams dialogue isnt quite as witty as the brisk Ms. Burton and Lynn Redgrave, who plays her imperious mother, manage to make it sound Imperial, West 45th Street, Whether that voice fits comfortably into the Russian village of Anatevka is another issue. But at least it brings a bit of zest to this abidingly bland production Minskoff, West 45th Street, Watching Joe Mantellos hopping revival of David Mamets play about a dog-eat-dog real estate office is like having espresso pumped directly into your bloodstream.

But whats a little lost sleep when youve had the chance to see a dream-team ensemble, including Liev Schrieber and Alan Alda, pitching fast-ball Mamet dialogue with such pure love for the athletics of acting Bernard B. Jacobs Theater, West 45th Street, Thats chutzpah. And quite a talent, too Hayes, West 44th Street, Beaumont, Lincoln Center, Booth, West 45th Street, His great accomplishment is in doing so in an expressly theatrical language that never sensationalizes, lectures or begs for pity Still, it seems safe to say that such a good time is being had by so many people that this fitful, eager celebration of inanity and irreverence will find a large and lucrative audience Shubert, West 44th Street, Lyceum, West 45th Street, In the title role of the hopeful dance hall hostess, the appealing but underequipped Christina Applegate is less a shopworn angel than a merry cherub Everybody ultimately loses in Edward Albees great marital wrestling match of a play from But theatergoers who attend this revealingly acted new production, starring a superb Kathleen Turner and Bill Irwin, are destined to leave the Longacre feeling like winners Longacre Theater, West 48th Street, Larry Mosss production is respectable and effective, but the performances by Omar Metwally and Lena Georgas are exhaustingly busy Neil Genzlinger.

Unfortunately, an actor plays the lead musician, which blunts the impact both of the band and of this too-pat play, which goes for laugh lines at the expense of credibility. Providing theatergoers a two-foot drum on every seat, it offers an opportunity to exorcise aggressions by delivering a good beating; and on a slightly more elevated level, it presents a superficial introduction to African culture, lessons in drumming and 90 minutes of nonstop music, song and dancing by a good-natured cast. So, while literally and figuratively giving off many good vibes, it adds up to lightweight entertainment that stops just short of pulverizing the eardrums Dodgers Stages, West 50th Street, Clinton, That seems to be the guiding principle behind this hodgepodge of juggling, rope twirling and such, delivered wordlessly by the cast Lambs Theater, West 44th Street, Midtown, Implausibility is a big problem: there are plot holes here you could easily drive a hardback copy of Infinite Jest through The musical is the happy narcissist of theater; parody is the best form of narcissism.

All it needs are smart writers and winning performers. Thats what we get in this case Cleanly directed by Doug Hughes, it features a pair of excellent performances by the superb actors John Glover and Ron Rifkin. Baitz gets himself trapped in the mechanical working of an overcomplicated plot The Nobel Prize laureate John Galsworthys drama about two English families whose differences escalate into destructive conflict provides provocative and entertaining theater. Union Square Theater, East 17th Street, Even if the costumes are a bit too cute -- are the oversize codpieces really necessary?

The cardboard characters and predictable permutations are, in fact, actually numbered. Each vignette is presented as a sort of plot equation that never really adds up. This two-hours plus theatrical lottery may soon make you feel in need of a remedial math course. Top Ten is even less than the sum of its parts. Sanford Meisner Theater, 11th Avenue, near 22nd Street, Gurneys gleefully partisan retooling of the film Casablanca sets one tough saloon owners battle between idealism and cynicism in Buffalo in the 21st century. Staged by Jim Simpson as a deftly orchestrated reading, Screen Play turns out to be more than a quick collegiate caper; its a morally indignant work that fights frivolity with frivolity Ambassador, West 49th Street, Manhattan, Thats what they do Majestic Theater, West 44th Street, Manhattan, James Theater, West 44th Street, Manhattan, Nederlander Theater, West 41st Street, Manhattan, Whenever Mr.

Bedfords Jaques is center stage, spreading skepticism among the plays spirited lovers, the sun comes out, at least in aesthetic terms. When he retreats to the fringes, clouds of mediocrity gather with alarming speed, although Lynn Collins is a warm and likable Rosalind. Delacorte Theater in Central Park. West at the Second Stage Theater. The gifted Ms. Merkerson has no trouble bridging that emotional distance, but theres little she can do to patch the dramatic holes in Ms. Wests fragmentary, seriously unsatisfactory play. Adam Bocks screwy, perfectly cast play poses this and other questions you didnt know needed asking, in hilarious fashion.

Genzlinger Movies Ratings and running times are in parentheses; foreign films have English subtitles. Lively and imaginative as their inner worlds may be, the very young still lack the discipline and maturity to shape their dream worlds into coherent and compelling stories -- a task the director Robert Rodriguez El Mariachi, Sin City also fails to accomplish in this muddled quest narrative based on characters and themes created by his 7-year-old son, Racer Max. Batman Begins is the seventh live-action film to take on the comic-book legend and the first to usher it into the kingdom of movie myth.

For the adult moviegoer, the film is a well-timed gift; its also essential viewing. Earnest and sometimes clumsy, but also affecting. The movie is agreeably watchable for an hour, so its too bad that the director Nora Ephron forgot that a gimmick is no substitute for a screenplay, never mind a real movie. Bold, richly textured and entertaining. Braddock are, unsurprisingly, Russell Crowe and Paul Giamatti, actors who could steal a movie from a basket of mewling kittens and an army of rosy-cheeked orphans. Recommended for everyone except those likely to be in the Kenneth L. Lay and Jeffrey K. Skilling jury pools. Scott 5x2 R, 90 minutes, in French A couples relationship unravels backward, from divorce through the birth of their child to their first meeting.

Interesting, but chilly. The twist here is that as the walking dead have grown progressively more human, the living have slowly lost touch with their humanity. You wont go home hungry. Lindsay Lohan, who combines a tomboyish spunk with a sexy, head-turning strut gives it a charismatic star boost. Nicely directed with heart and sincerity by the newcomer Garth Jennings, the film features Martin Freeman, a sensational Sam Rockwell and some gloriously singing dolphins. Lovely to look at, full of heart and mystery. Ferrells character and a rival youth soccer coach parodying his performance in The Great Santini. The story follows a venerable Hollywood formula: its lesson is that winning isnt everything, but of course once you learn this lesson, youll win big, anyway.

Amiably bogus. Connolly, this is the newest in British gangland entertainment and the tastiest in years. The star of this show is the very good British actor Daniel Craig, who slices through Layer Cake like a knife. Dargis LILA SAYS No rating, 89 minutes, in French Ziad Douieris film, about a year-old French girls provocative verbal seduction of a year-old Arab boy takes the raw material of social realist melodrama and turns it into a sad and sexy pop song. These, in the end, are not enough to compensate for the lack of interesting narrative, real characters or jokes on subjects other than flatulence, excrement and contemporary pop culture.

The sight of year-olds trying to master the graceful, grown-up motions of the fox trot and the tango is charming, and the glimpses of their lives in and outside of school are fascinating, though unfortunately the film offers little more than glimpses. Narrated by Morgan Freeman, the film has no qualms about playing on our emotions. Holden MR. SMITH PG, minutes What counts in a movie like this are stars so dazzling that we wont really notice or at least mind the cut-rate writing from Simon Kinberg and occasionally incoherent action from the director Doug Liman. Sometimes Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie succeed in their mutual role as sucker bait, sometimes they dont, which is why their new joint venture is alternately a goof and a drag.

Andy Garcias wooden lead performance leads its list of the movies sins against art history. Superb performances, especially by Joseph Gordon-Levitt. As you watch his swan song, which stars Liv Ullmann and Erland Josephson as the embattled ex-spouses, you feel the crushing weight of time pressing in around them. Deciding the jeans must be magic, they make a pact to share them for the summer, wearing them for a week apiece and then mailing them to the next friend. Like the four girls at its center, this fresh-scrubbed, eager-to-please film makes up in charm for what it lacks in sophistication. Or for the middle. In any case, the saga is now complete, and has regained much of its original glory. Effectively scary and visually impressive.

This quietly despairing vision comes equipped with an ethnographic attention to detail, glints of surreal comedy and a scaled-down replica of the twin towers. The American-Scandinavian Foundation is screening four more of these made-for-Swedish-television movies on consecutive Wednesdays. Peter Haber plays Detective Martin Beck and Mikael Persbrandt is his police-department partner, Gunvald Larsson, who has on-the-job problems relating to women. In Beck: The Recluse, they investigate the deaths of an elderly man on the island of Vanso and a young woman in Stockholm. In Beck: Sender Unknown, the victim is an accountant booked on a flight to Malaysia.

Scandinavia House, 58 Park Avenue, between 37th and 38th Streets, On Thursday night, the film is Sweet Honey in the Rock , Stanley Nelsons documentary about the a cappella singing group. Nicholas Park, Depp plays an undercover F. The weekends other features are Ed Wood , Tim Burtons portrait of a very bad filmmaker, and Arizona Dream , Emir Kusturicas absurdist comedy. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde , both today and tomorrow; and Monkey Business , the Marx Brothers comedy, set on an ocean liner, on Sunday and Monday.

Two movies for one admission. Atkinss old duo, Cybotron. He is to play a D. The Brooklyn punkers the Panthers make incendiary music conscious of both the avant-garde and grass-roots politics. Country rocks Ms. Harris continues to contemplate love and loss with trademark ghostly tenderness, 6 p. But any fiesty put-ons fall away when the guitarist Donna R lays into her three-chord Ramones riffs and more recent arena rock solos with single-minded verve. Her touted soul power has seemed diffuse in the past, but this survivors latest material plays on her natural warmth rather than her dancefloor exhortations. Its burly Nigerian funk with bruising horn riffs, jazzy solos, dancing backup singers and lyrics that mix seriousness and sensuality within the groove.

Openers Brazilian Girls play erotic, electronica-inflected reggae and bossa novas. An intentionally chaotic live show coheres without seeming cultish or hinging on the frisson of collapse. Dressy Bessys sassy bounce harkens back to gutsy, melodic alt-punk. Pony Da Look plays a bluesier version of the same. But for all their classic symmetry, theyre the confessions of desperate, unsavory and unbalanced characters. Lovett has an ache in his voice that he uses to sound utterly heartfelt even when his songs grow wry and absurd. His limber band covers the Texas spectrum from swing to honky-tonk to gospel.

John Fogertys wild-eyed wail and distilled guitar twang are utterly undiminished, the sound of a mythic backwoods Southland where barefoot girls dance in the moonlight. Nicolao erwehnten Ordens Priester und Prediger. Haupt- und Residenzstadt Wien derer von den WW. Provinz des Heil. Bernardinum A B. Joannis A S. Typographi, Trinitatis Institutum Redemptio Captivorum cum adjuncto kalendario ecclesiastice-historico universi ordinis. Authore P. Viennae Austriae. Typis Joannis Van Ghelen, Sac. Aulae Typographie Italici. Graz sous presse. Laborie, art. Avec Approbation et Permission. Anhuth, , p. La maniere dont les Turcs y traitent les esclaves.

Comme on les rachete. Et diverses avantures curieuses. Amsterdam , 2 t. Danzig, im Verlag bei G. The community soon spread throughout the Catholic-dominated countries of the Mediterranean, where frequent fighting between Muslim and Christian armies and fleets created a great demand for their specific kind of charitable as well as diplomatic work. Therefore, during early modern times also, the principal personalities behind the organization of the order were based in France and Spain.

An overview of their eight hundred year service to god and humanity. Rome s. La regola dei Trinitari, Assisi , Giulio Cipollone ed. Oltre la crociata e il! Actividad redentora de la Orden Trinitaria, vol. Recent publications are: Elisabeth Pauli, Befreiung aus tyrannischer Gefangenschaft. The dissertation of Elisabeth Pauli, being in completion at the moment, will give a survey of the contents of research literature existing so far. D'Errico, The Trinitarians, esp. This relates both to the ecclesiastical sphere5 — for which the full exemption from the bishoprics' jurisdiction has to be mentioned as a most significant achievement that allowed a coordinated, trans-regional pursuit of the order's aims — and to the secular sphere, although the for this, of course, the order was dependent on the goodwill of the relevant worldly political authorities.

Yet, particularly for governments of European regions, in which warfare with Muslims and abduction of Christian subjects for the purpose of slavery was a serious and constant problem, the order's support was obviously quite attractive during early modern era, perhaps not least due to the expertise that had already been built up within the Trinitarian order in handling difficulties that were linked to such a field of action as the ransom and exchange of captives of war and victims of manhunts.

D'Errico, The Trinitarians, p. The status of the Spanish Discalced order, which is the relevant congregation for Central Europe, in ecclesiastical law is documented most completely in the Bullarium Discalceatorum Sanctissimae Trinitatis ab erectione eiusdem Ordinis Congregationis Hispanicae, manuscript in the Archive of the Trinitarian Order in San Carlino alle quattro fontane, Rome. The internal legal system of the order is laid down in: Antonius a Conceptione ed. Josef Matuz, Das Osmanische Reich. Moreover, at the "military border" a region not called so by the Austrians a "minor war" continued even during the specified times of peace, and led to enormous casualties, too, particularly regarding regional villagers and border settlers, of whom thousands were taken captive even during formal "peace times".

This is also reflected in the fact that newly founded Trinitarian settlements in the Habsburg monarchy were already becoming rare in the s, and ceased after the s. Eine wechselhafte Beziehungsgeschichte. Likewise, the years of brought the war of Polish succession. Geza David, Pal Fodor Hg. The military confines in the era of Ottoman conquest, Leiden u. Porres Alonso, Libertad, p.

Pauli, Befreiung aus tyrannischer Gefangenschaft, p. Probably even more importantly, enlightened thought did its part in undermining the legitimacy of religious orders18 and especially of charitable almsgiving in late 18th century Austria, too, whilst a liberal laissez-faire policy was on the rise, that, at its worst, intended to ridicule the help for those unfortunates, who fell into captivity during travels, by declaring them being of questionable moral character, and even collaborators of the Turks. Porres Alonso, Libertad a los cautivos, p. For this phenomenon cf. Seekrieg, Handel und Sklaverei vom Ricchezza dal mare, sec. Jahrhundert, Wien Jean Mondot ed.

An account of the actual conduct of the redemption voyages, as well as detailed analyses of the order's spiritual and intellectual self-definition, its organizational development, personal structure, financing patterns, political and social position within the Habsburg monarchy of 17th and 18th century etc. The fundamental structures regarding most of these aspects can be found in the older and, particularly, the recent research literature on the Austrian Trinitarians.

Graz phil. These findings stem from the research on the Trinitarian order within the Habsburg monarchy, which the present authors have been conducting since the year within the framework of a research project on charitable monastic orders in early modern Central Europe, situated at the Center for Social Research at the University of Graz, and financed by the Austrian Science fund. The aforementioned catalogi captivorum contain a specific composition of information on each redeemed captive, although sometimes some parameters are missing for some of the persons listed in those documents, and even the features mentioned vary slightly between them.

For most cases, the existing lists22 contain the names of the liberated captives and thus, an indication on their gender, too , their age, counted in years, their home countries, the duration of their captivity, and the amount of the ransom that was paid for them. Sometimes, the type of captivity is noted, too, but in that regard a clear bias can be perceived, because in nearly all of such cases, it was slavery on the galleys, which — as the most miserable and pitiful kind of captivity known in those days — seemed worth pointing out particularly. Sacramento , Relatio Austriacae Redemptionis captivorum. Clementi XI. Dicata, Romae , Joannes a S. Ordine Excalceatorum SS. Josepho , Verzeichnis deren gefangenen Christen [ Ferdinando , Catalogi Captivorum Christianorum [ Joannes Nepomuk , Catalogi Captivorum Christianorum [ Anna , Catalogi Captivorum Christianorum [ Nicolao , Catalogi Captivorum Christianorum [ The names set in brackets in the bibliography below refer to the pater redemptor, the Trinitarian responsible for the redemption travel.

Year numbers set in brackets indicate the end of the redemption travel, but not to a printing date, which often is missing. Yet numbers of freed captives were quite small during the early stages of the orders' activities in the Habsburg Empire: people were redeemed during the first five missions in the decade Obviously the order first had to adapt to the conditions there and the new main 'target regions' of Eastern Europe. The conduction of the mission to the Tatar regions, to which the first redemptions were destined, caused specific, enormous problems. It seems very probable that after these enterprises printed lists were compiled, too, but there is not even any indication of such prints in contemporary publications by the order or in the research literature, and no trace of them in any of the archives we were able to consult until now.

Maurus a Conceptione 2. Joannes a S. Augustino 3. Maurus a Conceptione 4. Augustino 24 patres redemptores Cf. Therefore, if anyone could suggest to us, were we could find any of these documents, we would be very grateful. It still has to be kept in mind that maybe they did not survive at all. Felice, Annales, p. Augustino 6. Josephus a SS. Felice 9. Felice Josephus a Jesu Maria Michael a Assumptione Andreas a S. Gertrudis Georgius a S. Josespho Ignatio Fernando Augustinus a SS. Trinitate Antonius a S. Xaverius a S. Joannes N. Joachimus a S. Anna Bernardinus a Virgine Daniel a Resurrectione Benedictus a S. Felix Bartholomeus a S. Nicolao Anselmus a S.

Engelbertus a Matre Dei 1,06 Mio. The following basic information — as the sum of freed captives, costs, destinations and member of the order in charge for the particular operation — is known for nearly all redemptions. Yet the numbers of freed persons slightly differ in some cases between the sources, as the Annales Provinciae, the Catalogi captivorum and the Arbor Chronologica. In those cases, the numbers given in the Annales Provinciae or the Catalogi captivorum are displayed in the table. For one redemption Nr. And the numbers for one 88! For the redemption of Nr. The total cost of the redemptions — the amount of ransom paid at each redemption, partially including the travel expenses as well — are given here, yet rounded to entire florins, according to the data in Porres Alonso, Libertad, p.

These differences probably result from various forms of contemporary calculations of total costs, particularly regarding the handling of travel expenses, which either could be calculated separately or included into the ransom figures by adding a proportional value for each liberated person, the latter case probably being the more usual one. The destinations of the redemption voyages are presented in the table only in a selective manner comprising those regions and cities mentioned at the title page of the catalogues. The abbreviations indicate: Adr. It is remarkable that even in the first decades of the 18th century men were clearly dominant among the liberated captives; this was obviously due to the large number of military personnel that fell into the hand of the enemy during warfare.

From the s onwards, the proportion of women among the freed sank even more, because the main risk for Central European Christians of falling into Muslim captivity was no longer violent fighting on land, but pirate assault during sea travel in the Mediterranean. Just because of the high risks accompanying every trip by ship during early modern time, 'normal' people not working as sailors, tradesmen, soldiers or in similar professions avoided it as much as possible, and often women were even formally excluded from ship transport.

Still, the medium value for age among the freed was quite high at 28 As the sources for this analysis are collectedly cited above, no further bibliographical indications for the catalogi captivorum and complementary sources are given below. They were cheaper and their owners often wanted to get rid of them if they were not able to work anymore. A lot of them obviously were robbed as babies or very small children and did not bear a family name in the catalogue, a hint that they were separated from their parents either during their violent deportation itself, or afterwards during captivity at an age when they were too young to keep a trace of their original family affiliation in mind.

A further basic parameter regularly given in the catalogues is that of the home country. One might expect the samples of people ransomed by the Austrian Trinitarians to consist of Austrians or persons originating in the Habsburg Empire, but this is true only to a certain degree: Whilst — concerning the whole period — two-thirds of the persons listed in the Austrian catalogi captivorum indeed originated from some part of the Central European Austrian Empire, this was not the case for one third see table 2 below. B: Partly under Ottoman control until ; today parts of Croatia. The latter is displayed separately here for thematic reasons.

Moreover the city of Fiume, under Hungarian rule, is included here, too. H: Including the bishopric of Trento, thus also the Italian-speaking population. K: The main part annexed to Prussia after , only the Southern region around Troppau remaining Austrian. L: Under Austrian rule since resp. M: Austrian from resp. For the purpose of this statistics, all persons from these Southern Italian regions freed from onwards were not counted as Habsburg subjects, even if taken captive at a time, when their home countries yet belonged to the Austrian monarchy.

N: Large parts of today's Belgium, Austrian since O: The territories belonging to the Holy Roman Empire, but not under Habsburg rule; moreover Switzerland, Prussia and Kurland as at that time German-dominated states outside the old Reich were although included in this category. Q: Most Spanish, two liberated Portuguese after R: The Polish people ransomed were not counted as Austrian subjects here in general, although the southern parts of the reign became Austrian in V: Primarily children born there.

The percentages in the table refer to the sum of cases valid for analysis. If one looks at the regional distribution at the level of single provinces, and the temporal development, too, it becomes very clear, that this composition of the home-countries of the freed captives reflects the geographical focuses of Christian-Muslim-warfare, and its shifts during the 18th century, too: Whilst the inhabitants of Hungary, Transylvania and the eastern hereditary lands form the major groups of liberated persons until ca. It corresponds to the fact that the proportion of people from Habsburg Italy among the redeemed rose strongly, as they — by their 92! Of course, the common belonging to the legal commonwealth of the Holy Roman Empire, which involved a special responsibility on the part of the Emperors for all of its inhabitants, played an important role here.

But the Austrian Trinitarians also freed a considerable number of persons from other, more distant regions. Moreover, there was a very close cooperation between the Austrian and the Polish branch of the Trinitarians, particularly during the late 17th and early 18th century. Reformator des Ordens der Allerheiligsten Dreifaltigkeit, Rom Felice, Annales, Pauli, Befreiung, p. This is also manifest in the fact that the Trinitarians did not at all confine themselves to ransoming members of the Catholic Church, but exerted their activities also for the redemption of Protestant and Orthodox Christians. Yet relevant data is available only for out of cases, as the pertinent indications are often missing, and particularly women are nearly never classified in this regard.

Thus, for only 21 out of women are any indications given here apart from the eventual status as "wives" 19 of those cases pertain to "settlers" at the AustrianOttoman border region , but regarding the men redeemed, for out of some remark on professional or social status was made. In particular, very simple occupations were not listed in the catalogues at all if not exercising military or navy professions. Another aspect of interest is the duration of captivity. Because of its nature as a metric variable at least principally , arithmetic averages can be computed in this case.

The rounded results are 10 years and 3 months as mean duration of captivity for the whole period of , and 12 years 6 months and 7 years 5 months for the two part-periods respectively. Therefore, within the second half of the 18th century, people were liberated much earlier on average. From those redeemed in the Ottoman Empire, nearly 6 tenths were bought or exchanged in the capital Constantinople persons , whilst the remainder divides quite equally over three areas: the cities of Salonika and Smyrna persons together , the rest of South East-Europe 94 , and Minor Asia Therefore, the urban 'hotspots' of the slave trade within the Ottoman Empire become quite visible here.

Another very interesting result can be observed, again, if we differentiate between the earlier and the later parts of the 18th century. The picture is completely reversed during the period from the s onwards: Now, the numbers of redeemed from Tatary tend towards zero, but there are hundreds of cases of redemption in Northern Africa, mostly in Algiers, accounting for nearly half of all persons ransomed during these later stages. Of course, all the variables discussed here, derived from the catalogues of redeemed, can be analyzed not only separately, but also regarding the combinations that can be found between them. First of all one can compute the average ransom paid for one individual across all redemptions using the specific data on this issue, which is fl.

Still, impressive differences appear, if one compares different socio-demographic categories of redeemed captives, too. Taking only the cases in which the full amount of ransom was noted by the Trinitarians, it can be seen, for example, that there was a significant gender bias, with women 'costing' on average fl. Prices also varied a lot according to the age of the ransomed at the time, as can be seen in the table below: Table 5: Average prices paid by the Austrian Trinitarians according to age of captives , only full ransoms included Age class N mean price Age class N mean price up to 9 fl. Men and, less frequently, women, 'in their prime' — namely adults between about 20 and 40 years — obviously were rated most valuable on average, be it in regard to their workforce value or to other personal features related to age, such as attractiveness, whilst older captives as well as children and teenagers were — again, of course, in mean — considered less valuable.

The very low figures for children under 10 are particularly noteworthy. Moreover it can, of course, be shown, that the social status of the slaves played a major role in determining their 'prices'. Yet the social rank was not the only element of price-calculation, but 32 To make the display of average 'prices' more readable, the calculated numbers are rounded up or down to full florins, omitting fractions or values to be given in Kreuzer. To give an understanding of the values of money presented here, some comparison may be useful: A qualified handicraftsman earned about a third of an Austrian florin per working day during the first half of the 18th century. Until the s, prizes and wages rose somewhat, but not to a large extent. Only by this assumption can one explain why Christian ex-soldiers were, on average, 'for sale' much more cheaply than handicraftsmen.

The particular need of skilled workers in Northern Africa is even reported in contemporary publications: Whilst a person characterized as handicraftsmen — and therefore probably also skilled as such — represented an average selling value of not less than fl. Servants, employees and rural settlers were not very expensive either — the mean ransom for such persons was about fl. Apparently because of their social status within Christian societies, higher prices had to be paid for redeeming clergymen, the mean ransom for priests and monks being fl. Similarly large differences in ransom amounts are to be found, if regional variances are taken into account, regarding the places were the captives were bought back.

As can be seen in the table below, prizes for Christian slaves were much higher in Northern Africa than in the Ottoman Empire itself, and liberating captives from the Tatary was comparatively cheap, too. Ottoman Empire rest 91 fl. Tartary fl. Tunis and Tripolis -- 27 fl. Algiers and Mascara 4 fl. Total fl. The category Constantinople in the table includes some cases where we cannot decide whether the redemption took place in Constantinople or in Adrianople. This is true for the entire 18th century, but in the first half of the century the activities of the Austrian Trinitarians within the Barbary States were marginal, if numbers of freed are considered, and started only around the middle of the century.

Another interesting point is that costs for redemption in the Eastern Barbary States, Tunis and Tripoli, were much lower, and similar to those usually paid in the Ottoman Empire. The reasons for this are unclear, but the high sums that had to be paid by the Trinitarians for liberating Christians in Algiers for certain are - at least partially - caused by the fact that its economy to a high degree relied of upon slave-work and slave-trade. The enormous sums that were necessary to buy all the captives were sponsored not least by the Aristocracy of the Habsburg Monarchy, particularly during the second half of the 18th century. From to between a fifth and a quarter of the ransom sums specified in the surviving catalogues stemmed from either "alms of the province", from foundations from aristocrats or from the emperor himself private, court or state budget , and the rest, nearly a third, from "means of the order" not further detailed.

This was about half of the total sum spent within the period , which is fully documented. Compared to that, the Therefore, nearly one third of the money that was used for the liberation of captives was donated by 34 35 Cf. Davies, Christian Slaves. The Austrian branch of the Trinitarians, belonging to the Spanish Discalced Congregation, was active mainly in the Black Sea region and the Ottoman Empire very quickly after its foundation in , trying to liberate and bring home some of the tens of thousands unfortunate victims of the manhunts conducted by the Turkish and Tataric forces during the 'Great Turkish War' from to , the HabsburgOttoman wars of and , but also the periods of formal peace in between, for the purpose of requisition of slaves.

After the es, when there were no larger violent conflicts at the southern and eastern border of the Austrian monarchy, and thus numbers of captives to be ransomed ! With the help of so-called catalogi redeptorum, lists of freed persons, we were able to reconstruct the fundamental sociodemographic features of a majority of those people bought free or exchanged by the Austrian Trinitarian order during the 18th century, and presented some basic outcomes of our research above whilst a broader display of results will be delivered soon in a monographic publication.

Interestingly an examination of the indication of home-countries, given in the catalogues, shows that not by far all of the liberated stemmed from the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, as could have been expected maybe. Only slightly more than the half of the liberated captives stemmed from its core lands — the Austrian hereditary states, the Bohemian and Hungarian crown lands — altogether. Germans from not Habsburg-ruled parts of the Holy Roman Empire played an important role, too, counting up to nearly a fifth of all documented cases of liberated captives.

This is quite explicable, as the Austrian Trinitarians regularly collected alms within the "Reich", too, and therefore of course, there was a special obligation to free also people from these regions. Still, the Austrian Trinitarians obviously felt responsible for them, too. This shows clearly that political borders did play a role for the charitable activity of the Trinitarians, but not a rigidly excluding one. Even confessional belonging to the Catholic Church was a renounceable criterion, which is documented by dozens of individuals stemming from definitively 'heretic' or 'schismatic' parts of Europe, like Scandinavia or Russia.

Contemporary writings from members of the order in Austria, like the Annales Provinciae and the Triumphus Misericordiae of P. Joannes a San Felice, clearly confirm this point, too. One hoped for the conversion of those fellow Christians towards 'only true' Catholicism, of course, but the patres redemptores did not treat a conversion as precondition for being redeemed — as long as the person was Christian at all — but rather hoped for the later insight of these people into the spiritual superiority of a confession being that devoted to mercy and charity towards the nearest.

Of course, the social and professional status of the liberated Christians would be of high interest, too; yet information on this area is far less complete. Anyhow, it is evident that people from all social strata are represented among them. Apart from the latter, those characteristics are almost exclusively given for the male proportion of the freed. In average, they had to wait for more than 10 years for their liberation, although there are unfortunate individuals, who were rescued only after several decades of slavery abroad.

Prices, which frequently were noted, too, of course vary according to the sociodemographic characteristics already mentioned. Interestingly, women were, in average, considerably 'cheaper' than men. Less surprising is the fact, that adults between 20 and 40, again of course in average, were more 'expensive' than younger and older people, who could not be used that intensely for work. Regarding the stated professions, the mean ransom was the highest for handicraftsmen, whilst soldiers and seamen could be bought free for only half of the money each. But ransom heights also varied distinctly between various regions of the Muslim world, being most expensive in Northern Africa, particularly in Morocco, and comparingly low in the Ottoman Empire and the Tartary.

As an overall average, ca. Prices for Christian captives of course had a certain tendency to rise during the time space , like all prices did, but there is no extraordinary increase to be seen at a general level. Of course, the Trinitarian friars had to raise their financial means for the ransoming activities, before conducting them, and the sources examined here often also refer to this aspect, reporting separately donations by the state and the court, particular foundations established by the high nobility, and funds gained by the common alms collection. It may l be seen as a remarkable feature of early modern European society that enormous amounts of money were donated for charitable purposes — among them the one of the ransom of captives, and that not only those — who could afford it easily, did contribute to the achievement of this aim, but also a vast number of 'common people'.

Altogether, the enormous amount of more than 1. The first tome and volume provides a brief history of the order surveying the ransom missions conducted by its different European branches. The second tome, the second and third volumes, is a collection of archival sources, especially royal privileges the Castilian and Aragonese Trinitarians received over the years.

This is not an academic, critical history of the Trinitarian order but rather a well-documented and useful chronicle of its captive-redeeming activities. In the first section of the first volume, Porres presents a brief history of the order from its foundation in and surveys royal and papal legislation relating to its ransom and fund raising mechanisms. The fact that the rule of the order stipulated that a third of its income —from alms the friars begged— be dedicated to captive-redeeming was crucial but not enough to fund the ransom operations.

Other necessary sources of income were wills, donations, and rents. Porres ends this section in a discussion of the conflict between the Trinitarians and the Mercedarians many of the documents in the other two volumes relate to the tensions between these orders and of the history of the Trinitarian hospitals in Algiers and Tunis. In the rest of the first volume, Porres surveys in length a large number of documented redemption missions conducted by the order the calzados and the descalzados , through its history. While the discussion about the Eastern branches is especially interesting as less is known about them, the sections on the French and Iberian branches are richer and betterdocumented.

Porres shows how, in contrast to what scholars argued, the Iberians and French did not limit their work to North Africa and occasionally were active in Istanbul. His survey points out the important role of intermediaries and of European consuls absent from much of the scholarship in facilitating in many cases the work of the friars. Finally and conveniently each of the sections has a table summarizing the number and dates of expeditions sent by each branch, the names of the friars leading it, and the number of rescued captives.

The second and third volumes provide chronologically arranged collections of royal privileges the Trinitarians received from the crown —the second volume is dedicated to Castile, the third to Aragon. The records discuss the rights the Trinitarians had over wills, the licenses they received to beg alms, the networks of layman who helped fund raising, and the rivalry between the Mercedarians and the Trinitarians. The volumes have more than a hundred illustrations taken from early-modern Trinitarian publications.

The first tome has a sixty-three-page bibliography of primary sources and scholarly works focusing on the order in general, on its ransom activities and on additional related topics. The second offers an annotated bibliography of primary sources focusing on the privileges the order obtained and an additional bibliography of primary and secondary sources on the same subject. Both volumes have useful indices of names and places. In early , for instance, the Austrian National Library agreed with the corporation to "digitalize and make accessible online" "its 1 Cf.

Botho Brachmann, Neue Quellengattungen. In: Friedrich Beck, Eckart Henning ed. Paderborn et al. Charles E. Only by transforming knowledge contained in print to new and easily accessible digital formats can we guarantee its survival. In: New York Times, Das Teuflische an diesem Plan. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Plaidoyer pour un sursaut. Paris An English translation later appeared under the title Google and the myth of universal knowledge Chicago The pertaining problems were discussed recently i.

Therefore, at least from the point of legal and power relations, this new approach seems acceptable also from a standpoint of securing public interests in free access to the printed cultural heritage. We still have to wait for the results, particularly regarding the question as to whether it will be possible to produce qualitatively sufficient scans of such enormous amounts of text material. If this succeeds — and recently scanned books available online at Google books6 already give hope for that in contrast to earlier elaborations, which were in some cases of poor readability — it will be indeed of great value for academic research also. Particularly, this is true for projects for scholarly and scientific purposes, because they, in general, meet very particular interests and needs.

To evaluate the potential losses due to exclusively electronically storage of images or texts of historical sources cf. Friedrich Beck, Eckart Henning ed. In: ibid. That seems particularly worthy since most of even the printed sources concerning the early modern history of redemption of Christians enslaved in Muslim countries by this catholic organization are very rare and difficult to access at the few libraries or institutions, which own copies of them. Therefore, a presentation of original texts in a specific online database may contribute to make scholarly work related to that topic more efficient. This 9 For an interesting application cf. For interim results, concerning the History of the Trinitarian order, cf.

Other sources presented by us were made freely accessible on the internet, without restrictions for further use, by other owners of originals. Technical aspects Befreiung aus tyrannischer Gefangenschaft. In: Anne Duprat, Emilie Picherot ed. Paris , pp. For an overview on this matter cf. Paul Goldstein, International Copyright. Principles, Law, and Practice.

Oxford et al. At the cited page, we give a short introduction into the collection. At the moment this is only in German, but will soon also appear in those languages, we consider most relevant to the potential users — English, French, Italian, Spanish, and, last but not least, Latin. From the main page, the user can look for his path to the single sources then by two means: 1. By using the "systematic overview"-subpage, which classifies the documents presented there in the following categories: Overviews and introductions to the history of the Trinitarian Order in general 17th and 18th cent. Sources on the history of the Trinitarian order in general 17th and 18th cent. By a chronological list of the sources collected. The texts — research contributions and sources at the moment only printed ones can then be called up individually and downloaded for free, either in their entireties, or chapter by chapter, depending on the length of the texts and the data volume thus necessary for their storage.

We refer to the political persecution carried out against those who were of non-communist sympathies. With regard to Israel, Sebag is doubtful Essay On Standardized Testing In Schools the cultural traits brought by Tunisian Jews will be transmitted to their Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office. Teo En El Hipermercado eBook. Viewed in this way, the communists can be Social Anxiety, if not as heroes, at least as the leading representatives of the Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office forces on the Republican side who were attempting at all costs to Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office a democratic Personal Narrative: My Experience With Dr. Espanols Office from the onslaught of international fascism.

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