⚡ Denali Fault Case Study

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Denali Fault Case Study



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AESF: 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali earthquake – complex rupture

Within the park, he sets up an instrument to record data at each survey point for a few days each year, and uses these year-to-year changes in position to study the movements of the Earth. After large earthquakes, the pattern and rate of strain around the fault is often quite different immediately after the earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake time period. Postseismic def ormation is the general term used for the movements that follow and are triggered by earthquakes.

It can last for years to decades after a large earthquake, and its changes with time provide important information about the physical properties of the Earth. The Denali Fault earthquake caused changes in the observed motions all across central Alaska. All measurement sites, including those in the park, initially showed rapid horizontal motions, which have slowed down over time. Overall, motions were about 20 times faster over the first years after the earthquake, compared to the pre-earthquake rates.

Even several years after the earthquake, average speeds remain several times higher than the pre-earthquake rates at many sites. At many of the sites inside the park, the motions after the earthquake are now slowing down to nearly the preearthquake rates. As the effects of the earthquake continue to dissipate, continued measurements of GPS sites in and around the park will provide an invaluable record of how the crust and mantle in central Alaska behave. Scientists use these data to study what drives the motion on the fault, and to make estimates of the long-term rate of motion of the Denali Fault through the park.

Combined with geological investigations of past earthquake ruptures on this section of the fault, these studies will allow a better assessment of the earthquake hazards posed by this significant fault. Explore This Park. Measuring Earth Movements from the Denali Fault. To prevent such a disaster, some of the country's top seismologists and geologists were brought together to study the Denali Fault. Those studies located the fault within a 1,foot corridor crossing the pipeline route and estimated that the pipeline could be subjected to a magnitude 8. To accommodate the projected fault movement, a section of the pipeline where it crosses the Denali Fault was laid on sliders rather than on rigid pillar supports.

The pipeline rests on Teflon shoes that are free to slide on long horizontal steel beams, such that the pipeline moves when the ground moves. When the team of structural and geo-technical engineers came up with this design in the early s, they didn't expect it to be tested in their lifetimes. They were wrong. On November 3, , the Denali Fault ruptured over a distance of km, producing the largest earthquake from a continental strike-slip fault in North America since the San Francisco earthquake.

Measuring 7. The violent shaking damaged a few of the pipeline's supports near the fault, but the pipeline itself did not break. It was the first significant quake to test the pipeline's mettle. The survival of the pipeline in the Denali Fault earthquake was the result of careful engineering to meet stringent earthquake design specifications based on meticulous geological studies. The sliders on which the Trans-Alaska Pipeline rests. The Tok Cut-Off highway was offset 23 feet 7 m by the earthquake.

Richardson Highway offset 8. This location is near where supports to the Trans Alaska Pipeline sustained damage. Richardson Highway on right, looking north. The Alaska Pipeline is on the left. In recent years this has been the most memorable class session of the semester, as students throw themselves into an assigned role that they may not personally agree with and then negotiate from that perspective whether and how the Pebble project should be moved forward. This year a student commented, "It was great to learn how the geology that we learned in class intersected with the other disciplines, which is actually what we will see in our future real-world careers. The activities are detailed in the following pages, and supplementary content is provided for classroom use.

For the economic geology of porphyry ore deposits, Sillitoe is a useful resource, and the geology of the Pebble deposit has been described by Lang et al. In our porphyry deposit lab exercise, students identify characteristics in samples from classic ore deposits around the world and then place the samples within a schematic cartoon of a porphyry ore system. For institutions without access to rock samples, this exercise might be adapted to use digital images of samples or collections from a museum. The questions focus on the surface water and groundwater conditions at Pebble, how the area's geology governs the exchange between surface and groundwater, and the critical nature of environmental baseline studies.

This group reading activity allows the class to hear a diversity of perspectives on the science behind the Pebble project without an onerous homework load. Papers, to be derived from four readings, are assigned see the list on page 7 , and one quarter of the class reads each paper for homework. During class, teams who read the same paper meet to come to consensus on the following questions:.

Finally, the teams are reorganized into groups of four—each member read a different paper, so the whole assignment is represented. Each member shares the answers agreed upon by their first groups from the first part of the session. The deliverable is a short group write-up of the answers to the above questions for each paper, and the content is tested on the final exam.

The sliders on which the Denali Fault Case Study Pipeline rests. A major earthquake along the fault could cause the pipeline Denali Fault Case Study rupture, spilling crude oil into Denali Fault Case Study surrounding environment. Chemical Properties: Reaction with air: - When plutonium is exposed to Denali Fault Case Study it begins to Denali Fault Case Study, it forms a yellowish-brown outer coat and Denali Fault Case Study to tarnish. Geologists then matched rocks of the same age on either side of the Denali Fault Case Study to determine how far the rocks had moved along the fault over time. How can permafrost Denali Fault Case Study bird populations? Aircraft Solutions Essay Denali Fault Case Study 8 Denali Fault Case Study Executive Summary Aircraft Solutions AS Grace And Ruthie Analysis a recognized leader in the design and fabrication of component products and services for Denali Fault Case Study in the electronics, commercial, defense, and Denali Fault Case Study industry.

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