⚡ The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism
Inside contained an instruction manual Swot Analysis Of Joe Fresh Hangul. Of course many gross violations occur off the record, Essay On Nature Vs Nurture human rights groups such as Amnesty The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism have the task of exposing the gap between public allegiance to rights and the sad reality of The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism abuse. For parents with The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism children in the family, they can only care about [online learning The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism ] the older child but not the younger one. There was a The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism for parents to The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism online learning for their The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism, as revealed by a parent: children can learn some knowledge via online approaches, but they would develop an interest in watching smartphones and TV, which is not good for their eyes. This The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism where the political communitarians The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism the last decade have shed some light. In: Suggate S. The Varsitys Team is an extreme example of the sort of weakness The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism often find in foundationalism. Professionalism Paper: Professional Appearance Chinese parents in this study reported using different strategies to restrict digital device use The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism making many George Orwells Speech to promote offline activities for children while limiting digital activities The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism advantages of celebrity endorsement.
EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - Confucius
China is no exception. As an urgent response to the COVID pandemic, in early February , the Ministry of Education of China a mandated that all schools and universities stop face-to-face teaching and use internet platforms to deliver online learning. School children were required to attend online classes to continue their education. Under such circumstances, many Chinese parents followed the suggestions from teachers and educational authorities to provide online learning to their children during the lockdown. Such influences on parents in adopting online learning are not difficult to understand in Chinese sociocultural contexts. Chinese early childhood education is shaped by its social culture and educational tradition.
Confucian culture has strongly influenced the relationships between teachers and children in Chinese society Llasera, , which has laid great emphasis on adoring authority and respecting teachers Hargreaves, Tobin et al. Accordingly, the controversial digital and online learning for young children has been conducted under this unique and special circumstance in China. Without training and preparation for online teaching, Chinese parents and teachers have been engaged in this brand new experiment of digital and online learning for young children.
Naturally and expectedly, these parents and teachers might have encountered many difficulties, problems, obstacles in this unexpected experiment. Thus, this unique scenario has provided an ideal arena for us to understand Chinese parents' beliefs and attitudes around young children's online learning at home. Accordingly, this study aims to address the following research questions through an online survey:. This survey study was conducted in an inland city of Henan Province, which is located in the Central area of China. Altogether parents whose children were enrolled in local early childhood education programs voluntarily completed the online survey.
The majority of them were aged between 30 and 39 years Their educational levels were very diversified: junior secondary school, high school, associate degree, Bachelor, and postgraduate degree. Most of the parents have one or two children; very few of them have three or four plus. Half parents The background information of the sample is presented in Table 2 below. The questionnaire consists of three parts and includes 41 closed questions and two open-ended questions. The closed questions and rating scales generate an overview of parental beliefs and attitudes about online learning. In contrast, open questions allow parents to express their personal feelings, experiences, knowledge related to online learning.
Part I: Demographic information. This part has eight questions and collects the demographic information of the participants and their children. All these questions were used to investigate the frequency and the content of children's online learning, children's interactions, and parents' presence during online learning. The 27 questions could be classified into three subscales. Subscale one is about the pros and cons of online learning 9 items : parents were asked to compare online learning with the traditional face to face approach.
In particular, the two doctoral theses on the role and the effects of online learning were used to guide the design of the questionnaire items Chen, , Khurana, In their doctoral work, they compared both traditional and online education and examined the pros e. Specifically, the questions were centered on the efficiency, content, cost, effect, learning atmosphere, outcomes of online learning for young children and families. Subscale two is focused on the value of online learning for young children 10 items : parents were asked to evaluate the value of online learning based on the five learning and developmental areas wellbeing, language, society, science, and arts outlined by the educational authorities Ministry of Education, As a result, the frequent topics and heated debates e.
Brady and Hill, , Elkind, , House, , Plowman et al. Finally, subscale three measures the impact of online learning on family education 8 items : parents were asked to evaluate the impact of online learning on parenting and family education suggested by the educational authorities Ministry of Education, The questions were also used to examine the impact of online learning on parenting and family education see the questionnaire in an Appendix. The internal consistency of Part III was measured, and the reliability for its three subscales was 0. The survey was administrated in middle March after parents and children had been quarantined at home for two months since China imposed national lockdown in late January. All the parents and young children had gained substantial experiences with online learning.
The participants were clearly informed throughout the study that participation in this research was completely voluntary, and they could withdraw their participation at any time without any reason. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted in analyzing the data in this study. The mean scores were calculated for each scale, which provides an overall picture of the parental responses. Second, the qualitative data collected from the two open-ended questions were analyzed using NVivo 12 software.
The research team collaboratively conducted data coding and analysis. The process of coding the data was cyclical and iterative, involving numerous conversations among the two coders to eliminate inconsistencies in interpreting the data due to who was coding. Throughout the coding process, coders worked from the same codebook, as exemplified in Table 1 , which allows each coder in the research team to consistently and reliably analyze the data.
Generally, the qualitative data collected were straightforward for generating categories. The two coders also met to discuss any disagreements of coding and used strategies e. The qualitative data analysis followed their step-by-step guide in six phases. The initial categories were then reorganized and sorted into themes around reasons for and against online learning. Overall, most parents Specifically, these parents indicated that their children learned online once In addition, about one-third of the children had less than 15 min of online activities per time, and some had an average between 15 and 20 min. The majority of the parents used free online learning resources with no or meager cost.
And the children's online learning was mainly delivered and guided by preschool teachers or other staff; some were guided by online apps, webs, and others, as shown in Table 3. First, many young children watched the recorded lessons online once, or multiple times per day, some children watched only once or twice or three times per week, only a small percentage of them never did so.
A small number of parents commented in the open question that their children were learning physical exercise and language online. Second, many young children attended the live class online once, or multiple times per day, some children attended only once or twice or three times per week, about of them never did so. Third, many young children used WeChat once, or multiple times per day, some children used it only once or twice or three times per week, and many of them never did so.
Fourth, many young children used the learning apps once, or multiple times per day, some children did it only once or twice or three times per week, but half of them Fifth, majority of the children attended online with parent presence once Sixth, many children interacted with the instructor online once or multiple times per day, some children did this only once or twice or three times per week, many of them Last, many parents interacted with the instructor online once The quantitative data showed that the parents had relatively less positive beliefs about the value of online learning.
The subscale one measured parental beliefs about the pros and cons of online education compared to traditional learning in educational settings. The mean for this scale was 2. Only a small percentage of participants believed that online learning has better learning content About half parents neither agreed nor disagreed on the statements about the pros and cons of online learning, indicating a neutral position on the value of online education. There were very few parents 1. Furthermore, the qualitative data indicated that the parents believed that traditional learning in educational settings was better than online learning in creating a learning atmosphere with better learning outcomes.
These parents also explained their negative beliefs on online learning: lacking social interactions with peers, children did not treat online learning as a formal class; therefore were unable to focus on the learning. While learning online, children do not feel they are in class. Their self-regulation is not strong, so adults need to sit beside them, urging them [to concentrate] all the time. There are no peers around them, lacking a learning atmosphere, so children always want to play and cannot study well.
Young children learning online is not good. At home, they are relatively naughty and do not listen. They only watch TV and mobile phones. It is better to learn offline. Children listen more to their teachers and have a better learning atmosphere in kindergarten! The quantitative analysis indicated that the parents were less positive about the benefits of online learning. The subscale two had a mean of 2. In general, more parents perceived that online learning could help children gain more science knowledge Some parents further explained that young children had weak self-regulation and a short attention span thus could not engage in online learning. As shown in the following quotes from their responses to the two open questions, the parents believed that online learning had more harm to young children than its benefits.
Online learning has made children deprived of independent thinking, reduced the amount of physical exercises, and caused eye strain by excessive screen use. Young children should be lively and active, but now they have to receive online learning passively and inactively. Lacking social interactions with their peers and teachers has made their nature unstretched. There was a dilemma for parents to adopt online learning for their children, as revealed by a parent: children can learn some knowledge via online approaches, but they would develop an interest in watching smartphones and TV, which is not good for their eyes.
In general, many parents stated harm and challenges caused by online learning without mentioning any benefits, as shown in the following quotes. The biggest shortcoming [of online learning] is harmful to the eyes. Young children cannot learn online at all, and they do not listen at all. A long time is bad for their eyes. Approximately half parents believed that online learning kept their children from doing nothing at home during the outbreak of COVID Overall, the parents had slightly more positive perceptions of the impact of online learning on their family education. About 1. In addition, these parents mentioned various barriers for them to implement home online learning, including time constraints and professional knowledge in teaching children.
For parents with two children in the family, they can only care about [online learning of ] the older child but not the younger one. It is very difficult to choose between accompanying children to learn [at home] or work to make money. Additionally, they expressed concerns about unnecessary requirements such as signing attendance online, which presented another barrier for young children to accomplish independently and added extra work to parents. They felt like they were forced to follow online program requirements and instructions that did not align with the intended aim and flexibility of online learning. Every family is different. Online learning may be better in a one-child family.
For families with two children, and both need to sign-in and learn online, parents need to work and are very tired. After many practices of signing attendance online, they just got it. Online signing in is relatively difficult. In total, about 8. Such finding is also supported by the quantitative findings that only a few parents 8. Their parents, however, had different views about this online learning experience. This section will discuss these findings and their implications for future studies and practical improvements. Firstly, this study found that the parents held a belief that online learning is less effective than traditional learning in early childhood educational environments.
They believed that online education lacked a learning atmosphere and social interactions to engage young children, resulting in poor learning outcomes. These generally negative beliefs about online learning could be related to the two major causes. As noted by Arnott and Yelland , p. Therefore, these Chinese parents need to update their knowledge and develop a new understanding of 'childhoods,' 'learning,' and 'play' through parental education or family-school partnership programs. The second cause might be the major shortcomings of online learning, as noted by the critics Khurana, ; Chen, ; Doherty et al. This study, however, found that all these critical issues had not been solved, even though many advancements had been made in digital and online technologies.
Therefore, Chinese parents tended to have negative perceptions of digital and online learning. Secondly, this study found that most Chinese parents had a major concern about vision problems caused by online and digital learning. Such concern has been shared by many parents and early childhood educators internationally Hatzigianni and Kalaitzidis, , Mertala, a , Sharkins et al. In China, the prevalence of myopia appears to have rapidly increased in recent years, and more and more young children are reported to be short-sighted Ku et al. This problem has been attributed to the increased screen-time by the public Guarino, Therefore, this concern reported by the Chinese parents in this study is sensible and should be carefully addressed by the developers and designers of digital and online learning programs.
Thirdly, this study found that the parents were also worried about the lacking of physical activity as well as the addiction to screens such as TV and smartphones caused by digital and online learning. This concern is also reasonable and understandable, given that all the young children were quarantined at home during the COVID pandemic, and digital and online learning became their only channel to interact with teachers and peers. The Chinese parents in this study reported using different strategies to restrict digital device use and making many efforts to promote offline activities for children while limiting digital activities at home.
All these findings jointly indicated that Chinese parents tended to view digital and online learning negatively. Specifically, the recent national survey of parents of children aged 2—17 that parents believed that their children spent too much time playing games, using social media, and streaming TV shows. First, this study found that Chinese parents tended to reject online learning because their children had no or low self-regulation. Furthermore, the Chinese parents highly valued the linkage of self-regulation to the Confucianism heritage that children should be self-restraint and self-regulate to follow the social rules and norms. Second, this study found that Chinese parents tended to reject online learning because their children were uninterested, inactive, and unfocused during online learning.
This finding, however, contradicts with the existing ones that young children were strongly interested in media and technology Sharkins et al. Therefore, it might be the poor quality and boring content of online learning that has caused the resistance and even rejection of Chinese children and parents. The media of digital and online learning itself might not be the cause. The parents of only-child would invest more time and energy to help their child to excel in academic performance. Besides, the Chinese parents in this study generally perceived online learning as time-consuming and burdensome. Similarly, Smith et al. Last but not least, this study found that the parents were negative about online learning because the COVID lockdown had made them suffering from the hardships and the unexpected demand from online learning.
They felt unable to educate young children as their conventional role was not the teacher of a child, and they were not trained to do so. Accordingly, they were so eager to send their children back to preschools. Digital and online learning is gaining popularity due to its advantages, such as greater flexibility, wider access, and low cost Khurana, , Chen, However, this study found that the implementation of online learning during the COVID pandemic has been problematic and challenging for Chinese families. Chinese parents generally had negative beliefs and attitudes about the values and benefits of online learning and preferred traditional learning in early childhood educational environments.
This is because they were neither trained nor ready to embrace online learning. The hardship caused by the COVID pandemic has made them suffer, thus more resistant to online learning at home. This study, however, has certain limitations. First, a large-scale quantitative study can provide representative and diversified evidence about the target topic. Still, it has no way to gain an in-depth understanding of individualized situations and problems. Second, this online study simply collected self-report data, which might have a socially desirable bias.
Further studies with triangulation of methods i. Nevertheless, for the first time, this study has investigated Chinese parents' beliefs and attitudes concerning digital and online learning during the outbreak of COVID Even though online learning has been widely promoted in China to replace traditional education during the pandemic, the findings of this study indicate that the Chinese parents were neither trained nor ready for doing so. The findings from this study have implications for policymakers and educators globally who are promoting online learning as an alternative to young children and their families during the pandemic.
The promotion and implementation of online learning to replace traditional early childhood education during emergent situations like COVID need to be carefully considered and well planned to support families, rather than adding extra burdens to them. This means that the promoters should consider the complexity and diversity of families e. In addition, the provider of online learning should improve the design of online programs e.
Chuanmei Dong: Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - original draft. Simin Cao: Data curation, Investigation. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Child Youth Serv Rev. Published online Sep 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Special topoi included such concepts as justice or injustice, virtue, good, and worthiness. Again, these are areas of inquiry seen by many today as belonging to other arts, but from Greek times through the Renaissance, these were considered integral to the study and practice of rhetoric.
Topics or topoi can be used to invent arguments and also to conceptualize and formulate the single-sentence declarative thesis. Edward P. Corbett, Robert Connors, Richard P. Hughes, and P. Albert Duhamel define topics as "ways of probing one's subject in order to find the means to develop that subject". Teaching the topics requires using examples and good examples are to be had by applying each topic to a definite subject and coming up with several thesis statements". Aristotle described three "modes of persuasion," or "appeals. As Aristotle explains, logos, often referred to as the "logical" appeal, uses the arguments present in the case itself to appeal to the audience's reason.
Aristotle writes that logos depends on "the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself. Aristotle defined ethos as an appeal based on a speaker's character within a persuasive act. Later, the Roman rhetorician Cicero expanded this definition to contain elements of character outside a particular rhetorical act. Speakers use the mode of ethos when they create an argument based on their own character. When relying on ethos, a speaker uses personal "trustworthiness or credibility" to persuade the audience to believe their specific argument on a particular topic Ramage For example, if a presidential candidate has a long history of philanthropy, he or she will invent an argument that demonstrates personal good character in order to convince the audience that he or she is the best candidate for office.
Pathos represents an appeal to the audience's emotions. In order to appeal to an audience's emotions during the speech's delivery, the speaker must first take the audience's emotion into account during the early invention phase. For example, if a presidential candidate grew up poor and managed to succeed in life through hard work and education, then the candidate would have to apply that story to the speech-inventing process in order to appeal to the audience's emotions. This storytelling draws upon the common "bootstraps" narrative of American culture, one that often appeals to the emotions of the U.
According to rhetorical scholar Thomas O. Sloane, Cicero described rhetoric as the devising of true or seemingly true arguments for the sake of making one's case appear probable. Ciceronian invention is simply an analytical process of argument. Stasis is a procedure by which a speaker poses questions in order to clarify the main issues and persuasive points of a speech or debate. Using stasis theory gives the speaker numerous advantages that will help them excel in persuading. According to Crowley and Hawhee, the following advantages may accrue in the use of stasis theory.
For instance, a lawyer defending someone accused of damaging property might pose the following questions:. The question of fact is key as the first step in formulating any argument is separating the true from the false. If the terms of the argument at hand cannot be agreed on, the discussion will not move in any positive direction. Going back and forth attacking sources of information is not conducive to making any real progress, so an emphasis on using only solid information and evidence-based anecdotes is at the crucial to achieving stasis.
The question of definition means to define what, exactly, the issue of concern is, and what, if any, biases or preconceptions our arguments hold. Then, categorizing the problem is the next focus, agreeing on the class of the event and therefore the attitude with which it should be approached. A political disagreement should be investigated with a different lens than a criminal case, for example, as they are concerns of a different nature. The question of quality means identifying the magnitude of the event, the wider impacts, as well as what would happen if no action were to be taken.
Identifying if this problem is important as part of a bigger picture is key to preparing a sound argument, as well as figuring out whether or not it is a cause worth pursuing. The quality aspect of stasis comes down to deciding if this particular problem requires attention, and at what cost will a resolution come about. The question of jurisdiction means formulating a plan of action. Just as we calculate whether the particular problem is worth the energy in the quality category, here we make the decision to take action. A plan of action includes determining what kind of people should be involved in solving this problem, and what strategy these people will use. Invention also entails the adaptation of ideas and stylistic devices to unfamiliar audiences.
Murphy argues that rhetorical traditions consist of common patterns of language use and organized "social knowledge" of communities that make resources available for the invention of effective arguments. Murphy provides an example in which an orator would blend several rhetorical traditions: one by which the orator might primarily identify and another by which the audience might identify, thus merging speaker and audience through a display of interconnected rhetorical traditions. To Cicero, traditional rhetoric was a "mode of thought" and to attain this rhetoric it is required to make the "true nature of rhetorical inventio" apparent.
Sloane, a rhetorical scholar, discusses that inventio in the rhetorical tradition specifically refers to addressing the pros and cons of an argumentation. Amplification is a term in rhetoric defined as the enrichment of words to increase rhetorical effect. It is closely related to invention such that it deals with the development and progression of notions, drawing from the topics of invention.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Locus rhetoric. For other uses, see Locus. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. See also: Argumentation scheme. Goldthwaite The St. Walzer ed. Rereading Aristotle's Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Gross; A. Walzer eds. Translated by W. Rhys Roberts.Even though online learning The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism been widely promoted in China to replace traditional education during the pandemic, the findings of The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism study indicate that the Chinese words that begin with auto were neither trained nor ready for The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism so. I would like to share a similar article as like yours. Research in review: The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism children and The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism. One Analysis: The Gettysburg Address consider the reaction to a Chinese intellectual who puts forward Should Religion Be Taught In Schools Essay universal theory of justice that draws on the Chinese The Pros And Cons Of Confucianism tradition for inspiration and completely ignores the history and moral argumentation in Western societies, except for brief criticisms of slavery and imperialism. Jiang, Q.