⚡ How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny
How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny Samoa : Apr. In Three Types Of Social Capital Massachusetts became the first colony to authorize slavery through enacted law. Going into force inthis constitution reorganized the federal government into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances. How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny in rutherford .b hayes United Dulce Rosa Character Analysis became, more or less, self-sustaining by natural How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny among the current slaves and their descendants. How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny and other environmental challenges spread disease, which took the How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny of many slaves.
Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24
Get answers from Weegy and a team of really smart live experts. Popular Conversations. Fill in the blank space with an antonym of the italicized word. Weegy: He couldn? Wind erosion is most common in flat, bare areas Which of the following is not a requirement for becoming a Weegy: A high school diploma is not a requirement for becoming a naturalized citizen. User: A primary source for You must be under the influence of alcohol or an illegal drug to be Weegy: True. Profit can be defined Earthquakes can only occur at a fault if the fault experiences Weegy: Faults are breaks in the earth's crust. Fill in the blank. Weegy: One of the best reasons to write is to express what we think. Weegy: The monsoon weather pattern affecting the Indian Ocean enabled trade over a wide area from Africa to southeast The principal organized bodies to advocate abolition and anti-slavery reforms in the north were the Pennsylvania Abolition Society and the New York Manumission Society.
Before the s the antislavery groups called for gradual emancipation. In the early part of the 19th century, other organizations were founded to take action on the future of black Americans. Some advocated removing free black people from the United States to places where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization in Africa, while others advocated emigration , usually to Haiti.
By this time, however, most black Americans were native-born and did not want to emigrate, saying they were no more African than white Americans were British. Rather, they wanted full rights in the United States, where their families had lived and worked for generations. Many white people considered this preferable to emancipation in the United States. Henry Clay , one of the founders and a prominent slaveholder politician from Kentucky, said that blacks faced. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off. Deportation would also be a way to prevent reprisals against former slaveholders and white people in general, as had occurred in the Haiti massacre. After , abolitionist and newspaper publisher William Lloyd Garrison promoted emancipation, characterizing slaveholding as a personal sin.
He demanded that slaveowners repent and start the process of emancipation. His position increased defensiveness on the part of some Southerners, who noted the long history of slavery among many cultures. A few abolitionists, such as John Brown , favored the use of armed force to foment uprisings among the slaves, as he attempted to do at Harper's Ferry. Most abolitionists tried to raise public support to change laws and to challenge slave laws. Abolitionists were active on the lecture circuit in the North, and often featured escaped slaves in their presentations. Writer and orator Frederick Douglass became an important abolitionist leader after escaping from slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe 's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was an international bestseller and aroused popular sentiment against slavery.
It also provoked the publication of numerous anti-Tom novels by Southerners in the years before the American Civil War. While under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the import slave trade that was allowed in South Carolina, until , the third Congress regulated against it in the Slave Trade Act of , which prohibited American shipbuilding and outfitting for the trade. Subsequent acts in and sought to discourage the trade by banning American investment in the trade, and American employment on ships in the trade, as well as prohibiting importation into states that had abolished slavery, which most in the North had by that time.
However, illegal importation of African slaves smuggling was common. Despite the Act, Rhode Island slave ship owners found ways to continue supplying the slave-owning states. After Great Britain and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in , British slave trade suppression activities began in through diplomatic efforts and the formation of the Royal Navy 's West Africa Squadron in The USA denied the Royal Navy the right to stop and search US suspected slave ships, so not only were American ships unhindered by British patrols, but slavers from other countries would fly the American flag to try and avoid being stopped. Co-operation between the US and Britain was not possible during the War of nor the period of poor relations in the following years.
Cyane seized 4 American slave ships in her first year on station. Trenchard developed a good level of co-operation with the Royal Navy. Four additional US warships were sent to the African coast in and Then American enforcement activity reduced. There was still no agreement between the USA and Britain on a mutual right to board suspected slave traders sailing under each other's flag.
Attempts to reach such an agreement stalled in and in the Senate. A US Navy presence, however sporadic, did result in American slavers sailing under the Spanish flag, but still as an extensive trade. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of set a guaranteed minimum level of patrol activity by the US Navy and the Royal Navy, and formalised the level of co-operation that had existed in Its effects were, however, minimal whilst opportunities for greater co-operation were not taken. The US transatlantic slave trade was not effectively suppressed until Lincoln's presidency of , when a treaty with Britain was signed whose provisions included allowing the Royal Navy to board, search and arrest slavers operating under the American flag.
Although Virginia, Maryland and Delaware were slave states, the latter two already had a high proportion of free blacks by the outbreak of war. Following the Revolution, the three legislatures made manumission easier, allowed by deed or will. Quaker and Methodist ministers particularly urged slaveholders to free their slaves. The number and proportion of freed slaves in these states rose dramatically until More than half of the number of free blacks in the United States were concentrated in the Upper South. In the United States as a whole, the number of free blacks reached ,, or South Carolina made manumission more difficult, requiring legislative approval of every instance of manumission.
Several Southern states [ which? The growing international demand for cotton led many plantation owners further west in search of suitable land. In addition, the invention of the cotton gin in enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could readily be grown in the uplands. The invention revolutionized the cotton industry by increasing fifty-fold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day. At the end of the War of , fewer than , bales of cotton were produced nationally. By , the amount of cotton produced had increased to , bales, and by it had reached 4,, There was an explosive growth of cotton cultivation throughout the Deep South and greatly increased demand for slave labor to support it.
Most of the slaves sold from the Upper South were from Maryland , Virginia and the Carolinas , where changes in agriculture decreased the need for their labor and the demand for slaves. Before , primary destinations for the slaves who were sold were Kentucky and Tennessee , but after the Deep South states of Georgia , Alabama , Mississippi , Louisiana and Texas received the most slaves. This is where cotton became "king.
By , the domestic slave trade had become a major economic activity in the United States; it lasted until the s. The historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration of slaves the "Second Middle Passage" because it reproduced many of the same horrors as the Middle Passage the name given to the transportation of slaves from Africa to North America. These sales of slaves broke up many families and caused much hardship.
Characterizing it as the "central event" in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that, whether slaves were directly uprooted or lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free. Added to the earlier colonists combining slaves from different tribes, many ethnic Africans lost their knowledge of varying tribal origins in Africa. Most were descended from families that had been in the United States for many generations. The firm of Franklin and Armfield was a leader in this trade. In the s, almost , slaves were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving , each.
During each decade between and , at least , slaves were moved from their state of origin. In the final decade before the Civil War, , were transporteded. Slave traders transported two-thirds of the slaves who moved West. Slave traders had little interest in purchasing or transporting intact slave families; in the early years, planters demanded only the young male slaves needed for heavy labor.
Later, in the interest of creating a "self-reproducing labor force", planters purchased nearly equal numbers of men and women. Berlin wrote:. The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the South outside the plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment of modern transportation, finance, and publicity. The slave trade industry developed its own unique language, with terms such as "prime hands, bucks, breeding wenches, and "fancy girls" coming into common use. The expansion of the interstate slave trade contributed to the "economic revival of once depressed seaboard states" as demand accelerated the value of slaves who were subject to sale.
Some traders moved their "chattels" by sea, with Norfolk to New Orleans being the most common route, but most slaves were forced to walk overland. Others were shipped downriver from such markets as Louisville on the Ohio River, and Natchez on the Mississippi. Traders created regular migration routes served by a network of slave pens, yards and warehouses needed as temporary housing for the slaves. In addition, other vendors provided clothes, food and supplies for slaves. As the trek advanced, some slaves were sold and new ones purchased. Berlin concluded, "In all, the slave trade, with its hubs and regional centers, its spurs and circuits, reached into every cranny of southern society.
Few southerners, black or white, were untouched. Once the trip ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different from most labor in the Upper South. Clearing trees and starting crops on virgin fields was harsh and backbreaking work. A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water and exhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves and produced casualties. New plantations were located at rivers' edges for ease of transportation and travel. Mosquitoes and other environmental challenges spread disease, which took the lives of many slaves. They had acquired only limited immunities to lowland diseases in their previous homes.
The death rate was so high that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, some planters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own. The harsh conditions on the frontier increased slave resistance and led owners and overseers to rely on violence for control. Many of the slaves were new to cotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset gang labor" required by their new life. Slaves were driven much harder than when they had been in growing tobacco or wheat back East.
Slaves had less time and opportunity to improve the quality of their lives by raising their own livestock or tending vegetable gardens, for either their own consumption or trade, as they could in the East. In Louisiana , French colonists had established sugar cane plantations and exported sugar as the chief commodity crop. After the Louisiana Purchase in , Americans entered the state and joined the sugar cultivation.
Between and , planters bought slaves from the North and the number of slaves increased from fewer than 10, to more than 42, Planters preferred young males, who represented two-thirds of the slave purchases. Dealing with sugar cane was even more physically demanding than growing cotton. The largely young, unmarried male slave force made the reliance on violence by the owners "especially savage". New Orleans became nationally important as a slave market and port, as slaves were shipped from there upriver by steamboat to plantations on the Mississippi River; it also sold slaves who had been shipped downriver from markets such as Louisville. By , it had the largest slave market in North America.
It became the wealthiest and the fourth-largest city in the nation, based chiefly on the slave trade and associated businesses. Slave traders were men of low reputation, even in the South. In the presidential election, candidate Andrew Jackson was strongly criticized by opponents as a slave trader who transacted in slaves in defiance of modern standards or morality. The treatment of slaves in the United States varied widely depending on conditions, time, and place, but in general it was brutal, especially on plantations. Whippings and rape were routine. The power relationships of slavery corrupted many whites who had authority over slaves, with children showing their own cruelty. Masters and overseers resorted to physical punishments to impose their wills.
Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding and imprisonment. Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was carried out to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer of the slave. William Wells Brown , who escaped to freedom, reported that on one plantation, slave men were required to pick eighty pounds per day of cotton, while women were required to pick seventy pounds; if any slave failed in his or her quota, they were subject to whip lashes for each pound they were short. The whipping post stood next to the cotton scales. Historian Lawrence M.
Friedman wrote: "Ten Southern codes made it a crime to mistreat a slave. Under the Louisiana Civil Code of art. No slave could give testimony in the courts. According to Adalberto Aguirre, there were 1, slaves executed in the U. Although most slaves had lives that were very restricted in terms of their movements and agency, exceptions existed to virtually every generalization; for instance, there were also slaves who had considerable freedom in their daily lives: slaves allowed to rent out their labor and who might live independently of their master in cities, slaves who employed white workers, and slave doctors who treated upper-class white patients. Slaveholders published articles in Southern agricultural journals to share best practices in treatment and management of slaves; they intended to show that their system was better than the living conditions of northern industrial workers.
Medical care for slaves was limited in terms of the medical knowledge available to anyone. It was generally provided by other slaves or by slaveholders' family members, although sometimes "plantation physicians", like J. Marion Sims , were called by the owners to protect their investment by treating sick slaves. Many slaves possessed medical skills needed to tend to each other, and used folk remedies brought from Africa. They also developed new remedies based on American plants and herbs. According to Andrew Fede, an owner could be held criminally liable for killing a slave only if the slave he killed was "completely submissive and under the master's absolute control".
Because of the power relationships at work, slave women in the United States were at high risk for rape and sexual abuse. Many slaves fought back against sexual attacks, and some died resisting. Others carried psychological and physical scars from the attacks. Both Mary Chesnut and Fanny Kemble , wives of planters, wrote about this issue in the antebellum South in the decades before the Civil War. Sometimes planters used mixed-race slaves as house servants or favored artisans because they were their children or other relatives.
While slaves' living conditions were poor by modern standards, Robert Fogel argued that all workers, free or slave, during the first half of the 19th century were subject to hardship. To help regulate the relationship between slave and owner, including legal support for keeping the slave as property, states established slave codes , most based on laws existing since the colonial era.
The code for the District of Columbia defined a slave as "a human being, who is by law deprived of his or her liberty for life, and is the property of another". While each state had its own slave code, many concepts were shared throughout the slave states. This prohibition was unique to American slavery, believed to reduce slaves forming aspirations that could lead to escape or rebellion.
In Alabama, slaves were not allowed to leave their master's premises without written consent or passes. This was a common requirement in other states as well, and locally run patrols known to slaves as pater rollers often checked the passes of slaves who appeared to be away from their plantations. In Alabama slaves were prohibited from trading goods among themselves. In Virginia, a slave was not permitted to drink in public within one mile of his master or during public gatherings. Slaves were not permitted to carry firearms in any of the slave states. Slaves were generally prohibited by law from associating in groups, with the exception of worship services a reason why the Black Church is such a notable institution in black communities today.
Following Nat Turner 's rebellion in , which raised white fears throughout the South, some states also prohibited or restricted religious gatherings of slaves, or required that they be officiated by white men. Planters feared that group meetings would facilitate communication among slaves that could lead to rebellion. In Ohio, an emancipated slave was prohibited from returning to the state in which he or she had been enslaved.
Other Northern states discouraged the settling of free blacks within their boundaries. Fearing the influence of free blacks, Virginia and other Southern states passed laws to require blacks who had been freed to leave the state within a year or sometimes less time unless granted a stay by an act of the legislature. The United States Constitution , adopted in , prevented Congress from completely banning the importation of slaves until , although Congress regulated against the trade in the Slave Trade Act of , and in subsequent Acts in and By contrast, the states of Georgia and South Carolina reopened their trade due to demand by their upland planters, who were developing new cotton plantations: Georgia from until December 31, , and South Carolina from In that period, Charleston traders imported about 75, slaves, more than were brought to South Carolina in the 75 years before the Revolution.
By January 1, , when Congress banned further imports , South Carolina was the only state that still allowed importation of enslaved people. The domestic trade became extremely profitable as demand rose with the expansion of cultivation in the Deep South for cotton and sugar cane crops. Slavery in the United States became, more or less, self-sustaining by natural increase among the current slaves and their descendants. Maryland and Virginia viewed themselves as slave producers, seeing "producing slaves" as resembling animal husbandry.
Workers, including many children, were relocated by force from the upper to the lower South. Despite the ban, slave imports continued through smugglers bringing in slaves past the U. After that, "it is unlikely that more than 10, [slaves] were successfully landed in the United States. During the War of , British Royal Navy commanders of the blockading fleet were instructed to offer freedom to defecting American slaves, as the Crown had during the Revolutionary War. Thousands of escaped slaves went over to the Crown with their families. Many freed American slaves were recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments, or newly created British Army units. The British later resettled a few thousand freed slaves to Nova Scotia. Their descendants, together with descendants of the black people resettled there after the Revolution, have established the Black Loyalist Heritage Museum.
Slaveholders, primarily in the South, had considerable "loss of property" as thousands of slaves escaped to the British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. The Americans protested that Britain's failure to return all slaves violated the Treaty of Ghent. Prior to the American Revolution, masters and revivalists spread Christianity to slave communities, supported by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
In the First Great Awakening of the midth century, Baptists and Methodists from New England preached a message against slavery, encouraged masters to free their slaves, converted both slaves and free blacks, and gave them active roles in new congregations. Believing that, "slavery was contrary to the ethics of Jesus", Christian congregations and church clergy, especially in the North, played a role in the Underground Railroad , especially Wesleyan Methodists , Quakers and Congregationalists. Over the decades and with the growth of slavery throughout the South, some Baptist and Methodist ministers gradually changed their messages to accommodate the institution. After , white Southerners argued for the compatibility of Christianity and slavery, with a multitude of both Old and New Testament citations.
In the s and s, the issue of accepting slavery split the nation's largest religious denominations the Methodist , Baptist and Presbyterian churches into separate Northern and Southern organizations; see Methodist Episcopal Church, South , Southern Baptist Convention , and Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America. Southern slaves generally attended their masters' white churches, where they often outnumbered the white congregants. They were usually permitted to sit only in the back or in the balcony. They listened to white preachers, who emphasized the obligation of slaves to keep in their place, and acknowledged the slave's identity as both person and property.
This included masters having self-control, not disciplining under anger, not threatening, and ultimately fostering Christianity among their slaves by example. Slaves also created their own religious observances, meeting alone without the supervision of their white masters or ministers. The larger plantations with groups of slaves numbering 20, or more, tended to be centers of nighttime meetings of one or several plantation slave populations. African Americans developed a theology related to Biblical stories having the most meaning for them, including the hope for deliverance from slavery by their own Exodus. One lasting influence of these secret congregations is the African American spiritual.
According to Herbert Aptheker, "there were few phases of ante-bellum Southern life and history that were not in some way influenced by the fear of, or the actual outbreak of, militant concerted slave action. Historians in the 20th century identified to slave uprisings in U. In , Nat Turner , a literate slave who claimed to have spiritual visions , organized a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia ; it was sometimes called the Southampton Insurrection. Turner and his followers killed nearly sixty white inhabitants, mostly women and children. Many of the men in the area were attending a religious event in North Carolina. In a frenzy of fear and retaliation, the militia killed more than slaves who had not been involved in the rebellion. Planters whipped hundreds of innocent slaves to ensure resistance was quelled.
This rebellion prompted Virginia and other slave states to pass more restrictions on slaves and free people of color, controlling their movement and requiring more white supervision of gatherings. In North Carolina withdrew the franchise for free people of color, and they lost their vote. In a feature unique to American slavery, legislatures across the South enacted new laws to curtail the already limited rights of African Americans. For example, Virginia prohibited blacks, free or slave, from practicing preaching, prohibited them from owning firearms, and forbade anyone to teach slaves or free blacks how to read.
Any justice may issue his warrant to any office or other person, requiring him to enter any place where such assemblage may be, and seize any negro therein; and he, or any other justice, may order such negro to be punished with stripes. Unlike in the South, slave owners in Utah were required to send their slaves to school. There were approximately 15, slaves in New England in of , inhabitants. New York introduced gradual emancipation in completed in Pennsylvania abolished slavery during the War for Independence.
Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman , in their book Time on the Cross , argued that the rate of return of slavery at the market price was close to ten percent, a number close to investment in other assets. The transition from indentured servants to slaves is cited to show that slaves offered greater profits to their owners. A qualified consensus among economic historians and economists is that "Slave agriculture was efficient compared with free agriculture. Economies of scale, effective management, and intensive utilization of labor and capital made southern slave agriculture considerably more efficient than nonslave southern farming",  and it is the near-universal consensus among economic historians and economists that slavery was not "a system irrationally kept in existence by plantation owners who failed to perceive or were indifferent to their best economic interests".
The relative price of slaves and indentured servants in the antebellum period did decrease. Indentured servants became more costly with the increase in the demand of skilled labor in England. However, as in Brazil and Europe , slavery at its end in the United States tended to be concentrated in the poorest regions of the United States,  with a qualified consensus among economists and economic historians concluding that the "modern period of the South's economic convergence to the level of the North only began in earnest when the institutional foundations of the southern regional labor market were undermined, largely by federal farm and labor legislation dating from the s.
In the decades preceding the Civil War, the black population of the United States experienced a rapid natural increase. Baptist , Sven Beckert , Walter Johnson and Calvin Schermerhorn, have posited that slavery was integral in the development of American capitalism. Scholars disagree on how to quantify the efficiency of slavery. In Time on the Cross Fogel and Engerman equate efficiency to total factor productivity TFP , the output per average unit of input on a farm. Under the gang system, groups of slaves perform synchronized tasks under the constant vigilance of an overseer.
Each group was like a part of a machine. If perceived to be working below his capacity, a slave could be punished. Fogel argues that this kind of negative enforcement was not frequent and that slaves and free laborers had a similar quality of life; however, there is controversy on this last point. David in In , a random survey of members of the Economic History Association sought to study the views of economists and economic historians on the debate. The study found that 72 percent of economists and 65 percent of economic historians would generally agree that "Slave agriculture was efficient compared with free agriculture.
Economies of scale, effective management, and intensive utilization of labor and capital made southern slave agriculture considerably more efficient than nonslave southern farming. On the other hand, 58 percent of economic historians and 42 percent of economists disagreed with Fogel and Engerman's "proposition that the material not psychological conditions of the lives of slaves compared favorably with those of free industrial workers in the decades before the Civil War". For example, following bans on the import of slaves after the U. The markets for the products produced by slaves also affected the price of slaves e.
Anticipation of slavery's abolition also influenced prices. Controlling for inflation, prices of slaves rose dramatically in the six decades prior to the Civil War, reflecting demand due to commodity cotton, as well as use of slaves in shipping and manufacturing. Although the prices of slaves relative to indentured servants declined, both got more expensive. Cotton production was rising and relied on the use of slaves to yield high profits. Fogel and Engeman initially argued that if the Civil War had not happened, the slave prices would have increased even more, an average of more than fifty percent by Prices reflected the characteristics of the slave; such factors as sex, age, nature, and height were all taken into account to determine the price of a slave.
Over the life-cycle, the price of enslaved women was higher than their male counterparts up to puberty age, as they would likely bear children who their masters could sell as slaves and could be used as slave laborers. Men around the age of 25 were the most valued, as they were at the highest level of productivity and still had a considerable life-span. Slave traders and buyers would examine a slave's back for whipping scars; a large number of injuries would be seen as evidence of laziness or rebelliousness, rather than the previous master's brutality, and would lower the slave's price. While slavery brought profits in the short run, discussion continues on the economic benefits of slavery in the long run.
In , a random anonymous survey of members of the Economic History Association found that out of the forty propositions about American economic history that were surveyed, the group of propositions most disputed by economic historians and economists were those about the postbellum economy of the American South along with the Great Depression. The only exception was the proposition initially put forward by historian Gavin Wright that the "modern period of the South's economic convergence to the level of the North only began in earnest when the institutional foundations of the southern regional labor market were undermined, largely by federal farm and labor legislation dating from the s.
There was little public investment in railroads or other infrastructure. Wright argues that agricultural technology was far more developed in the South, representing an economic advantage of the South over the North of the United States. In Democracy in America , Alexis de Tocqueville noted that "the colonies in which there were no slaves became more populous and more rich than those in which slavery flourished. Lindert and Jeffrey G. By , per capita income in the South was well behind the Northeast and the national average Note: this is also true in the early 21st century. Lindert and Williamson argue that this antebellum period is an example of what economists Daron Acemoglu , Simon Johnson , and James A. Robinson call "a reversal of fortune".
He notes that slave societies reflected similar economic trends in those and other parts of the world, suggesting that the trend Lindert and Williamson identify may have continued until the American Civil War :. Both in Brazil and in the United States — the countries with the two largest slave populations in the Western Hemisphere — the end of slavery found the regions in which slaves had been concentrated poorer than other regions of these same countries. For the United States, a case could be made that this was due to the Civil War, which did so much damage to the South, but no such explanation would apply to Brazil, which fought no Civil War over this issue.
Although slavery in Europe died out before it was abolished in the Western Hemisphere, as late as slavery had not yet died out all across the continent when Adam Smith wrote in The Wealth of Nations that it still existed in some eastern regions. But, even then, Eastern Europe was much poorer than Western Europe. But these remained largely poor countries until the discovery and extraction of their vast oil deposits. Sowell also notes in Ethnic America: A History , citing historians Clement Eaton and Eugene Genovese , that three-quarters of Southern white families owned no slaves at all.
In short, even though some individual slaveowners grew rich and some family fortunes were founded on the exploitation of slaves, that is very different from saying that the whole society, or even its non-slave population as a whole, was more economically advanced than it would have been in the absence of slavery. What this means is that, whether employed as domestic servants or producing crops or other goods, millions suffered exploitation and dehumanization for no higher purpose than the Eric Hilt noted that, while some historians have suggested slavery was necessary for the Industrial Revolution on the grounds that American slave plantations produced most of the raw cotton for the British textiles market and the British textiles market was the vanguard of the Industrial Revolution , it is not clear if this is actually true; there is no evidence that cotton could not have been mass-produced by yeoman farmers rather than slave plantations if the latter had not existed as their existence tended to force yeoman farmers into subsistence farming and there is some evidence that they certainly could have.
The soil and climate of the American South were excellent for growing cotton, so it is not unreasonable to postulate that farms without slaves could have produced substantial amounts of cotton; even if they did not produce as much as the plantations did, it could still have been enough to serve the demand of British producers. Scholar Adrienne Davis articulates how the economics of slavery also can be defined as a sexual economy, specifically focusing on how black women were expected to perform physical, sexual and reproductive labor to provide a consistent enslaved workforce and increase the profits of white slavers. Davis writes that black women were needed for their "sexual and reproductive labor to satisfy the economic, political, and personal interest of white men of the elite class"  articulating that black women's reproductive capacity was important in the maintenance of the system of slavery due to its ability to perpetuate an enslaved workforce.
She is also drawing attention to black women's labor being needed to maintain the aristocracy of a white ruling class, due to the intimate nature of reproduction and its potential for producing more enslaved peoples. Due to the institution of partus sequitur ventrem , black women's wombs became the site where slavery was developed and transferred,  meaning that black women were not only used for their physical labor, but for their sexual and reproductive labor as well.
It converted enslaved women's reproductive capacity into market capital" . This articulation by Davis illustrates how black women's reproductive capacity was commodified under slavery, and that an analysis of the economic structures of slavery requires an acknowledgment of how pivotal black women's sexuality was in maintaining slavery's economic power. Davis writes how black women performed labor under slavery, writing: "[black women were] male when convenient and horrifically female when needed"  The fluctuating expectations of black women's gendered labor under slavery disrupted the white normative roles that were assigned to white men and white women. This ungendering black women received under slavery contributed to the systemic dehumanization experienced by enslaved black women, as they were unable to receive the expectations or experiences of either gender within the white binary.
Davis's arguments addresses the fact that under slavery, black women's sexuality became linked to the economic and public sphere, making their intimate lives into public institutions. Black women's physical labor was gendered as masculine under slavery when they were needed to yield more profit, but their reproductive capacities and sexual labor was equally as important in maintaining white power over black communities and perpetuating an enslaved workforce. Despite this, the slave population transported by the Atlantic slave trade to the United States was sex-balanced and most survived the passage.
Despite lacking legal recognition, most slaves in the antebellum South lived in families, unlike the trans-Saharan slave trade with Africa , which was overwhelmingly female and in which the majority died en route crossing the Sahara with the large majority of the minority of male African slaves dying as a result of crude castration procedures to produce eunuchs , who were in demand as harem attendants.
In , Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act , as part of the Compromise of , which required law enforcement and citizens of free states to cooperate in the capture and return of slaves. This met with considerable overt and covert resistance in free states and cities such as Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Some white Northerners helped hide former slaves from their former owners or helped them reach freedom in Canada.
As part of the Compromise of , Congress abolished the slave trade though not the ownership of slaves in the District of Columbia ; fearing this would happen, Alexandria , regional slave trading center and port, successfully sought its removal from the District of Columbia and devolution to Virginia. After , Republicans argued that the " Slave Power ", especially the pro-slavery Democratic Party in the South , controlled two of the three branches of the Federal government.
The abolitionists, realizing that the total elimination of slavery was unrealistic as an immediate goal, worked to prevent the expansion of slavery into the western territories which eventually would be new states. The Missouri Compromise , the Compromise of , and the Bleeding Kansas period dealt with whether new states would be slave or free, or how that was to be decided. Both sides were anxious about effects of these decisions on the balance of power in the Senate. After the passage of the Kansas—Nebraska Act in , border fighting broke out in the Kansas Territory , where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave or free state was left to the inhabitants.
Migrants from both free and slave states moved into the territory to prepare for the vote on slavery. Abolitionist John Brown , the most famous of the anti-slavery immigrants, was active in the fighting in "Bleeding Kansas," but so too were many white Southerners many from adjacent Missouri who opposed abolition. Abraham Lincoln's and the Republicans' political platform in was to stop slavery's expansion. Historian James McPherson says that in his famous " House Divided " speech in , Lincoln said American republicanism can be purified by restricting the further expansion of slavery as the first step to putting it on the road to 'ultimate extinction.
When he won the presidency, they left the Union to escape the 'ultimate extinction' of slavery. With the development of slave and free states after the American Revolution, and far-flung commercial and military activities, new situations arose in which slaves might be taken by masters into free states. Most free states not only prohibited slavery, but ruled that slaves brought and kept there illegally could be freed. Such cases were sometimes known as transit cases. Louis after the death of their master, based on their having been held in a free territory the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase from which slavery was excluded under the terms of the Missouri Compromise. Later the two cases were combined under Dred Scott's name.
Scott filed suit for freedom in and went through two state trials, the first denying and the second granting freedom to the couple and, by extension, their two daughters, who had also been held illegally in free territories. For 28 years, Missouri state precedent had generally respected laws of neighboring free states and territories, ruling for freedom in such transit cases where slaves had been held illegally in free territory. After Scott and his team appealed the case to the U. Taney , in a sweeping decision, denied Scott his freedom.
The decision , decided 7—2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress could not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants, could never be citizens and thus had no status to bring suit in a U. A state could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state. Many Republicans, including Abraham Lincoln , considered the decision unjust and evidence that the Slave Power had seized control of the Supreme Court. Anti-slavery groups were enraged and slave owners encouraged, escalating the tensions that led to civil war. The divisions became fully exposed with the presidential election.
The electorate split four ways. The Southern Democrats endorsed slavery, while the Republicans denounced it. The Northern Democrats said democracy required the people to decide on slavery locally, state by state and territory by territory. The Constitutional Union Party said the survival of the Union was at stake and everything else should be compromised. Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes. Lincoln, however, did not appear on the ballots of ten southern slave states. Many slave owners in the South feared that the real intent of the Republicans was the abolition of slavery in states where it already existed, and that the sudden emancipation of four million slaves would be disastrous for the slave owners and for the economy that drew its greatest profits from the labor of people who were not paid.
The slave owners feared that ending the balance could lead to the domination of the federal government by the northern free states. This led seven southern states to secede from the Union. When the southern forces attacked a U. Army installation at Fort Sumter, the American Civil War began and four additional slave states seceded. Northern leaders had viewed the slavery interests as a threat politically, but with secession, they viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, the Confederate States of America , with control over the Mississippi River and parts of the West , as politically unacceptable.
Most of all, they could not accept this repudiation of American nationalism. The consequent American Civil War , beginning in , led to the end of chattel slavery in America. Not long after the war broke out, through a legal maneuver credited to Union General Benjamin F. Butler , a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union "possession" were considered "contraband of war". General Butler ruled that they were not subject to return to Confederate owners as they had been before the war.
Soon word spread, and many slaves sought refuge in Union territory, desiring to be declared "contraband". Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workers or troops, forming entire regiments of the U. Colored Troops. Others went to refugee camps such as the Grand Contraband Camp near Fort Monroe or fled to northern cities. General Butler's interpretation was reinforced when Congress passed the Confiscation Act of , which declared that any property used by the Confederate military, including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces. At the beginning of the war, some Union commanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters. By , when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general.
The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. As Congressman George W. Julian of Indiana put it in an speech in Congress, the slaves "cannot be neutral. As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union. In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U. It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally and actually free. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army.
By June , the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and had liberated all of the designated slaves. In , Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states. He believed that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21, Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".
Lincoln later said that slavery was "somehow the cause of the war". Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, , and said that a final proclamation would be issued if his gradual plan, based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization, was rejected. In his letter to Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that. If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.
Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, was a powerful action that promised freedom for slaves in the Confederacy as soon as the Union armies reached them, and authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union Army. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the Union-allied slave-holding states that bordered the Confederacy. Since the Confederate States did not recognize the authority of President Lincoln, and the proclamation did not apply in the border states , at first the proclamation freed only those slaves who had escaped behind Union lines. The proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal that was implemented as the Union took territory from the Confederacy.
Based on the President's war powers, the Emancipation Proclamation applied to territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. Enslaved African Americans had not waited for Lincoln before escaping and seeking freedom behind Union lines. From the early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in Union-controlled areas such as Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in Virginia, Tennessee from on, the line of Sherman's march, etc.
So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance, establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations. In addition, nearly , African-American men served with distinction in the Union forces as soldiers and sailors; most were escaped slaves. The Confederacy was outraged by armed black soldiers and refused to treat them as prisoners of war. They murdered many, as at the Fort Pillow Massacre , and re-enslaved others. Tennessee and all of the border states except Kentucky and Delaware abolished slavery by early Thousands of slaves were freed by the operation of the Emancipation Proclamation as Union armies marched across the South.
Emancipation came to the remaining southern slaves after the surrender of all Confederate troops in spring In spite of the South's shortage of manpower, until , most Southern leaders opposed arming slaves as soldiers. However, a few Confederates discussed arming slaves. Finally in early General Robert E. Lee said black soldiers were essential, and legislation was passed. The first black units were in training when the war ended in April. Booker T. Washington remembered Emancipation Day in early , when he was a boy of 9 in Virginia: . As the great day drew nearer, there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual.
It was bolder, had more ring, and lasted later into the night. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom. Some man who seemed to be a stranger a United States officer, I presume made a little speech and then read a rather long paper — the Emancipation Proclamation, I think. After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks.
She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see. The war ended on June 22, , and following that surrender, the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced throughout remaining regions of the South that had not yet freed the slaves. Slavery officially continued for a couple of months in other locations. The commemoration of that event, Juneteenth National Independence Day , has been declared a national holiday in The Thirteenth Amendment , abolishing slavery except as punishment for a crime, had been passed by the Senate in April , and by the House of Representatives in January On that date, the last 40,—45, enslaved Americans were freed in the remaining two slave states of Kentucky and Delaware , and the or so perpetual apprentices in New Jersey, left from the very gradual emancipation process begun in The American historian R.
Palmer opined that the abolition of slavery in the United States without compensation to the former slave owners was an "annihilation of individual property rights without parallel Wright argues that it would have been much cheaper, with minimal deaths, if the federal government had purchased and freed all the slaves, rather than fighting the Civil War. Journalist Douglas A. Blackmon reported in his Pulitzer Prize -winning book Slavery By Another Name that many black persons were virtually enslaved under convict leasing programs, which started after the Civil War.
Most Southern states had no prisons; they leased convicts to businesses and farms for their labor, and the lessee paid for food and board. The incentives for abuse were satisfied. The continued involuntary servitude took various forms, but the primary forms included convict leasing , peonage , and sharecropping , with the latter eventually encompassing poor whites as well. By the s, whites constituted most of the sharecroppers in the South. Mechanization of agriculture had reduced the need for farm labor, and many black people left the South in the Great Migration.
Jurisdictions and states created fines and sentences for a wide variety of minor crimes and used these as an excuse to arrest and sentence black people. Under convict leasing programs, African American men, often guilty of no crime at all, were arrested, compelled to work without pay, repeatedly bought and sold, and coerced to do the bidding of the leaseholder. Sharecropping, as it was practiced during this period, often involved severe restrictions on the freedom of movement of sharecroppers, who could be whipped for leaving the plantation.
Both sharecropping and convict leasing were legal and tolerated by both the North and South. However, peonage was an illicit form of forced labor. Its existence was ignored by authorities while thousands of African Americans and poor Anglo-Americans were subjugated and held in bondage until the mids to the late s. With the exception of cases of peonage, beyond the period of Reconstruction, the federal government took almost no action to enforce the 13th Amendment until December when President Franklin Delano Roosevelt summoned his attorney general. Several months later, convict leasing was officially abolished.
But aspects have persisted in other forms. Historians argue that other systems of penal labor were all created in , and convict leasing was simply the most oppressive form.Government-funded Sask Killings: A Case Study care coverage for How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny poor Medicaidestablished in and for those age 65 and older Medicarebegun in is available to Americans who meet the programs' income or How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny qualifications. Gentry vividly How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny a day in New Orleans when he and the Essay On I Want To Be Free By H. L Mencken Lincoln came upon a slave market. The How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny Amendmentabolishing slavery except as punishment for a crime, had been passed by the Senate in Apriland by the House of How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny in January How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny South Carolina made manumission more difficult, requiring legislative approval of every instance of manumission. They worked to raise awareness How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny the evils of slavery, and to build support for abolition. George Fitzhugh used assumptions about white superiority to Examples Of Dilemmas In The Crucible How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny, writing that, "the Negro is but a grown up child, and must be governed How Did Native Americans Affect Manifest Destiny a child.