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Marrs Computational Theory



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Conversational or two-way media is a key characteristic of so-called Web 2. The role of the passive audience, therefore, has shifted since the birth of New Media , and an ever-growing number of participatory users are taking advantage of the interactive opportunities, especially on the Internet to create independent content. Grassroots experimentation then generated an innovation in sounds, artists, techniques, and associations with audiences which then are being used in mainstream media. For example, companies may ask users to post their reviews directly to their Facebook page. This could end up disastrous if a user makes a comment that steers people away from the product.

The action of linking to a work or copying a work could in itself motivate the creator, express the taste of the person linking or copying. The culmination of such linkages could very well identify the tastes of a person in the community and make that person unique. User-generated content occurs when a product's customers create and disseminate online ideas about a product or the firm that markets it. These ideas are often in the form of text but also come in other forms such as music, photos, or videos.

UGC has three key characteristics: 1 The contribution is by users of a product rather than the firm that sells this product; 2 it is creative in nature and the user adds something new; 3 it is posted online and generally accessible. According to Cisco Systems , in an average of 96, petabytes was transferred monthly over the Internet, more than twice as many as in Reaching 1. However, a concentration phenomenon is occurring globally giving the dominance to a few online platforms that become popular for some unique features they provide, most commonly for the added privacy they offer users through disappearing messages or end-to-end encryption e. WhatsApp , Snapchat , Signal , and Telegram , but they have tended to occupy niches and to facilitate the exchanges of information that remain rather invisible to larger audiences.

Production of freely accessible information has been increasing since In January , Wikipedia had more than 43 million articles, almost twice as many as in January This corresponded to a progressive diversification of content and increase in contributions in languages other than English. In , less than 12 percent of Wikipedia content was in English, down from 18 percent in For example, while content on Africa has dramatically increased, a significant portion of this content has continued to be produced by contributors operating from North America and Europe, rather than from Africa itself. The massive, multi-volume Oxford English Dictionary was exclusively composed of user-generated content. In , Richard Chenevix Trench of the London Philological Society sought public contributions from throughout the English-speaking world for the creation of the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary.

So what we're going to do, if I have your agreement that we're going to produce such a dictionary, is that we're going to send out invitations, were going to send these invitations to every library, every school, every university, every book shop that we can identify throughout the English-speaking world And the point is, the way they do it, the way they will be asked and instructed to do it, is to read voraciously and whenever they see a word, whether it's a preposition or a sesquipedalian monster, they are to Then the quotation, the quotation illustrates the meaning of the word.

And underneath it, the citation, where it came from, whether it was printed or whether it was in manuscript In the s several electronic bulletin board systems were based on user-generated content. Some of these systems have been converted into websites, including the film information site IMDb which started as rec. With the growth of the World Wide Web the focus moved to websites, several of which were based on user-generated content, including Wikipedia and Flickr The BBC set up a pilot user-generated content team in April with 3 staff. In the wake of the 7 July London bombings and the Buncefield oil depot fire , the team was made permanent and was expanded, reflecting the arrival in the mainstream of the citizen journalist.

After the Buncefield disaster the BBC received over 5, photos from viewers. The BBC does not normally pay for content generated by its viewers. Its rival Fox News Channel launched its project to bring in user-generated news, similarly titled "uReport". This was typical of major television news organisations in —, who realised, particularly in the wake of the London 7 July bombings, that citizen journalism could now become a significant part of broadcast news.

User-generated content was featured in Time magazine's Person of the Year , in which the person of the year was "you", meaning all of the people who contribute to user-generated media, including YouTube, Wikipedia and MySpace. The benefits derived from user-generated content for the content host are clear, these include a low-cost promotion, positive impact on product sales, and fresh content. However, the benefit to the contributor is less direct. There are various theories behind the motivation for contributing user-generated content, ranging from altruistic, to social, to materialistic.

Due to the high value of user-generated content, many sites use incentives to encourage their generation. These incentives can be generally categorized into implicit incentives and explicit incentives. Sometimes, users are also given monetary incentives to encourage them to create captivating and inspiring UGC. The distribution of UGC across the Web provides a high volume data source that is accessible for analysis , and offers utility in enhancing the experiences of end users.

Social science research can benefit from having access to the opinions of a population of users, and use this data to make inferences about their traits. Applications in information technology seek to mine end user data to support and improve machine-based processes, such as information retrieval and recommendation. However, processing the high volumes of data offered by UGC necessitate the ability to automatically sort and filter these data points according to their value.

Determining the value of user contributions for assessment and ranking can be difficult due to the variation in the quality and structure of this data. The quality and structure of the data provided by UGC is application-dependent, and can include items such as tags, reviews, or comments that may or may not be accompanied by useful metadata.

Additionally, the value of this data depends on the specific task for which it will be utilized and the available features of the application domain. Value can ultimately be defined and assessed according to whether the application will provide service to a crowd of humans, a single end user, or a platform designer. The variation of data and specificity of value has resulted in various approaches and methods for assessing and ranking UGC. The performance of each method essentially depends on the features and metrics that are available for analysis. Consequently, it is critical to have an understanding of the task objective and its relation to how the data is collected, structured, and represented in order to choose the most appropriate approach to utilizing it.

The methods of assessment and ranking can be categorized into two classes: human-centered and machine-centered. Methods emphasizing human-centered utility consider the ranking and assessment problem in terms of the users and their interactions with the system, whereas the machine-centered method considers the problem in terms of machine learning and computation. The various methods of assessment and ranking can be classified into one of four approaches: community-based, user-based, designer-based, and hybrid.

There are many types of user-generated content: Internet forums , where people talk about different topics; blogs are services where users can post about many topics, product reviews on a supplier website or in social media; wikis such as Wikipedia and Wikia allow users, sometimes including anonymous users, to edit the content. Another type of user-generated content are social networking sites like Facebook , Instagram , Tumblr , Twitter , Snapchat , Twitch , TikTok or VK , where users interact with other people via chatting, writing messages, posting images or links, and sharing content. Media hosting sites such as YouTube allow users to post content. Some forms of user-generated content, such as a social commentary blog, can be considered as a form of citizen journalism.

Blogs are websites created by individuals, groups, and associations. They mostly consist of journal-style text and enable interaction between a blogger and reader in the form of online comments. Blog hosting platforms include WordPress , Blogger , and Medium ; Typepad is often used by media companies; Weebly is geared for online shopping. Among the many blogs on the web, Boing Boing is a group blog with themes including technology and science fiction ; HuffPost blogs include opinions on subjects such as politics, entertainment, and technology.

Entertainment social media and information sharing websites include Reddit , 9Gag , 4chan , Upworthy and Newgrounds. Sites like Tech in Asia and Buzzfeed engage readers with professional communities by posting articles with user-generated comment sections. Net ; imageboards ; artwork communities like DeviantArt ; mobile photos and video sharing sites such as Picasa and Flickr ; audio social networks such as SoundCloud ; crowd funding or crowdsourcing sites like Kickstarter , Indiegogo , and ArtistShare ; and customer review sites such as Yelp. After launching in the mids, major UGC-based adult websites like Pornhub , YouPorn and xHamster and became the dominant mode of consumption and distribution of pornographic content on the internet.

The appearance of pornographic content on sites like Wikipedia and Tumblr led moderators and site owners to institute stricter limits on uploads. The travel industry, in particular, has begun utilizing user-generated content to show authentic traveler experiences. Travel-related companies such as The Millennial, Gen Z, [ citation needed ] and Busabout [35] relaunched their websites featuring UGC images and social content by their customers posted in real time. TripAdvisor includes reviews and recommendations by travelers about hotels, restaurants, and activities.

The restaurant industry has also been altered by a review system the places more emphasis on online reviews and content from peers than traditional media reviews. Video games can have fan-made content in the form of mods , fan patches , fan translations or server emulators. A popular use of UGC involves collaboration between a brand and a user. The Jib Jab website lets people use their photos of friends and family that they have uploaded to make a holiday video to share across the internet. You cut and paste the faces of the people in the pictures to animated dancing elves. Some brands are also using UGC images to boost the performance of their paid social ads. Some bargain hunting websites feature user-generated content, such as eBay , Dealsplus , and FatWallet which allow users to post, discuss, and control which bargains get promoted within the community.

Because of the dependency of social interaction, these sites fall into the category of social commerce. Wikipedia , a free encyclopedia, is one of the largest user-generated content databases in the world. Platforms such as YouTube have frequently been used as an instructional aide. Organizations such as the Khan Academy and the Green brothers have used the platform to upload series of videos on topics such as math, science, and history to help aid viewers master or better understand the basics.

Educational podcasts have also helped in teaching through an audio platform. Personal websites and messaging systems like Yahoo Messenger have also been used to transmit user-generated educational content. There have also been web forums where users give advice to each other. Students can also manipulate digital images or video clips to their advantage and tag them with easy to find keywords then share them to friends and family worldwide. The category of "student performance content" has risen in the form of discussion boards and chat logs.

Students could write reflective journals and diaries that may help others. Photo sharing websites are another popular form of UGC. Flickr is a site in which users are able to upload personal photos they have taken and label them in regards to their "motivation". Video sharing websites are another popular form of UGC. YouTube allows users to create and upload videos. The incorporation of user-generated content into mainstream journalism outlets is considered to have begun in with the BBC's creation of a user-generated content team, which was expanded and made permanent in the wake of the July 7, London bombings.

Since the mids, journalists and publishers have had to consider the effects that user-generated content has had on how news gets published, read, and shared. A study on publisher business models suggests that readers of online news sources value articles written both by professional journalists, as well as users—provided that those users are experts in a field relevant to the content that they create. In response to this, it is suggested that online news sites must consider themselves not only a source for articles and other types of journalism but also a platform for engagement and feedback from their communities.

The ongoing engagement with a news site that is possible due to the interactive nature of user-generated content is considered a source of sustainable revenue for publishers of online journalism going forward. Journalists are increasingly sourcing UGC from platforms, such as Facebook and TikTok , as news shifts to a digital space. The use of user-generated content has been prominent in the efforts of marketing online, especially among millennials. An increasing number of companies have been employing UGC techniques into their marketing efforts, such as Starbucks with their "White Cup Contest" campaign where customers competed to create the best doodle on their cups. The effectiveness of UGC in marketing has been shown to be significant as well. For instance, the " Share a Coke " by Coca-Cola campaign in which customers uploaded images of themselves with bottles to social media attributed to a two percent increase in revenue.

Of millennials, UGC can influence purchase decisions up to fifty-nine percent of the time, and eighty-four percent say that UGC on company websites has at least some influence on what they buy, typically in a positive way. As a whole, consumers place peer recommendations and reviews above those of professionals. User-generated content used in a marketing context has been known to help brands in numerous ways.

There are many opportunities in user-generated content. The advantage of UGC is that it is a quick, easy way to reach the masses. Here are some examples:. The term "user-generated content" has received some criticism. The criticism to date has addressed issues of fairness, quality, [59] privacy, [60] the sustainable availability of creative work and effort among legal issues namely related to intellectual property rights such as copyrights etc.

Some commentators assert that the term "user" implies an illusory or unproductive distinction between different kinds of "publishers", with the term "users" exclusively used to characterize publishers who operate on a much smaller scale than traditional mass-media outlets or who operate for free. A better response [ according to whom? Sometimes creative works made by individuals are lost because there are limited or no ways to precisely preserve creations when a UGC Web site service closes down.

One example of such loss is the closing of the Disney massively multiplayer online game " VMK ". VMK, like most games, has items that are traded from user to user. Many of these items are rare within the game. Users are able to use these items to create their own rooms, avatars and pin lanyard. This site shut down at 10 pm CDT on 21 May There are ways to preserve the essence, if not the entirety of such work through the users copying text and media to applications on their personal computers or recording live action or animated scenes using screen capture software, and then uploading elsewhere.

Long before the Web, creative works were simply lost or went out of publication and disappeared from history unless individuals found ways to keep them in personal collections. Another criticized aspect is the vast array of user-generated product and service reviews that can at times be misleading for consumer on the web. A study conducted at Cornell University found that an estimated 1 to 6 percent of positive user-generated online hotel reviews are fake. Another concern of platforms that rely heavily on user-generated content, such as Twitter and Facebook, is how easy it is to find people who holds the same opinions and interests in addition to how well they facilitate the creation of networks or closed groups.

There is also criticism regarding whether or not those who contribute to a platform should be paid for their content. The ability for services to accept user-generated content opens up a number of legal concerns, from the broader sense to specific local laws. Students attend weekly live "synchronous" sessions with classmates and instructors via an online platform as well as engaging with online "asynchronous" videos and assignments on their own time. The curriculum includes research design and applications for data and analysis, storing and retrieving data, exploring and analyzing data, identifying patterns in data, and effectively visualizing and communicating data. MIDS features a project-based approach to learning and encourages the pragmatic application of a variety of different tools and methods to solve complex problems.

The following minimum requirements apply to all graduate programs and will be verified by the Graduate Division:. The Graduate Council views academic degrees not as vocational training certificates, but as evidence of broad training in research methods, independent study, and articulation of learning. Therefore, applicants who already have academic graduate degrees should be able to pursue new subject matter at an advanced level without the need to enroll in a related or similar graduate program. The Graduate Division will admit students for a second doctoral degree only if they meet the following guidelines:. Applicants may apply only to one single degree program or one concurrent degree program per admission cycle.

Evidence of English language proficiency: All applicants who have completed a basic degree from a country or political entity in which the official language is not English are required to submit official evidence of English language proficiency. However, applicants who, at the time of application, have already completed at least one year of full-time academic course work with grades of B or better at a US university may submit an official transcript from the US university to fulfill this requirement.

The following courses will not fulfill this requirement:. If applicants have previously been denied admission to Berkeley on the basis of their English language proficiency, they must submit new test scores that meet the current minimum from one of the standardized tests. The institution code for Berkeley is Visit the Berkeley Graduate Division application page.

Applications are evaluated holistically on a combination of prior academic performance, work experience, statement of purpose, and letters of recommendation. The UC Berkeley School of Information seeks students with the academic abilities to meet the demands of a rigorous graduate program. To be eligible to apply to the Master of Information and Data Science program, applicants must meet the following requirements:.

Note: Admission to the Fifth Year Master of Information and Data Science program requires that the applicant complete their undergraduate education at UC Berkeley in the year prior to starting the program. However, applicants are required to submit three letters of recommendation and additional short answer essays. For more information and application instructions, please visit the datascience berkeley Admissions Overview.

The Master of Information and Data Science is designed to be completed in 20 months, but other options are available to complete the program. You will complete 27 units of course work over an average of five terms, taking a maximum of 9 units each term. Courses are divided into foundation courses 15 units , advanced courses 9 units , and a synthetic capstone 3 units. You will also complete an immersion at the UC Berkeley campus. However, as the program is full-time, it is intended to be completed in 12 months or three terms.

You will have the opportunity to gain on-the-ground perspectives from faculty and industry leaders, meet with data science professionals, and soak up more of the School of Information I School culture. Offered three times a year, each three- to four-day immersion will be custom-crafted to deliver additional learning, networking, and community-building opportunities. Please refer to the datascience berkeley website for more information. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This fast-paced course gives students fundamental Python knowledge necessary for advanced work in data science.

Students gain frequent practice writing code, building to advanced skills focused on data science applications. We introduce a range of Python objects and control structures, then build on these with classes on object-oriented programming. A major programming project reinforces these concepts, giving students insight into how a large piece of software is built and experience managing a full-cycle development project. The last section covers two popular Python packages for data analysis, Numpy and Pandas, and includes an exploratory data analysis. Student Learning Outcomes: Be able to design, reason about, and implement algorithms for solving computational problems.

Be able to generate an exploratory analysis of a data set using Python. Be able to navigate a file system, manipulate files, and execute programs using a command line interface. Be able to test and effectively debug programs. Be fluent in Python syntax and familiar with foundational Python object types. Be prepared for further programming challenges in more advanced data science courses. Know how to read, manipulate, describe, and visualize data using the Numpy and Pandas packages. Know how to use Python to extract data from different type of files and other sources. Understand how to manage different versions of a project using Git and how to collaborate with others using Github. Understand the principles of functional programming.

Understand the principles of object-oriented design and the process by which large pieces of software are developed. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Introduces the data sciences landscape, with a particular focus on learning data science techniques to uncover and answer the questions students will encounter in industry. Lectures, readings, discussions, and assignments will teach how to apply disciplined, creative methods to ask better questions, gather data, interpret results, and convey findings to various audiences. The emphasis throughout is on making practical contributions to real decisions that organizations will and should make.

Course must be taken for a letter grade to fulfill degree requirements. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This course provides students with a foundational understanding of classical statistics within the broader context of data science. Topics include exploratory analysis and descriptive statistics, probability theory and the foundations of statistical modeling, estimators, hypothesis testing, and classical linear regression. Causal inference and reproducibility issues are treated briefly. Students will learn to apply the most common statistical procedures correctly, checking assumptions and responding appropriately when they appear violated; to evaluate the design of a study and how the variables being measured relate to research questions; and to analyze real-world data using the open-source language R.

Prerequisites: Master of Information and Data Science students only. Intermediate competency in calculus is required. A college-level linear algebra course is recommended. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Storing, managing, and processing datasets are foundational processes in data science. This course introduces the fundamental knowledge and skills of data engineering that are required to be effective as a data scientist.

This course focuses on the basics of data pipelines, data pipeline flows and associated business use cases, and how organizations derive value from data and data engineering. As these fundamentals of data engineering are introduced , learners will interact with data and data processes at various stages in the pipeline, understand key data engineering tools and platforms, and use and connect critical technologies through which one can construct storage and processing architectures that underpin data science applications. Intermediate competency in Python, C, or Java, and competency in Linux, GitHub, and relevant Python libraries; or permission of instructor. Knowledge of database management including SQL is recommended but not required.

Fundamentals of Data Engineering: Read Less [-]. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Machine learning is a rapidly growing field at the intersection of computer science and statistics concerned with finding patterns in data. It is responsible for tremendous advances in technology, from personalized product recommendations to speech recognition in cell phones. This course provides a broad introduction to the key ideas in machine learning. The emphasis will be on intuition and practical examples rather than theoretical results , though some experience with probability, statistics, and linear algebra will be important.

Data Science W, W Linear algebra is recommended. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Visualization enhances exploratory analysis as well as efficient communication of data results. This course focuses on the design of visual representations of data in order to discover patterns, answer questions, convey findings, drive decisions, and provide persuasive evidence. The goal is to give you the practical knowledge you need to create effective tools for both exploring and explaining your data. Exercises throughout the course provide a hands-on experience using relevant programming libraries and software tools to apply research and design concepts learned. Student Learning Outcomes: Analyze data using exploratory visualization.

Build commonly requested types of visualizations as well as more advanced visualizations using ground-up customization. Constructively critique existing visualizations, identifying issues of integrity as well as excellence. Create useful, performant visualizations from real-world data sources, including large and complex datasets. Design aesthetically pleasing static and interactive visualizations with perceptually appropriate forms and encodings. Improve your own work through usability testing and iteration, with attention to context. Select appropriate tools for building visualizations, and gain skills to evaluate new tools. If taken concurrently, students may not drop W and remain in W If Python is the only programming language you know, you will probably benefit from learning the basics of web development with JavaScript in advance.

The centerpiece is a semester-long group project in which teams of students propose and select project ideas, conduct and communicate their work, receive and provide feedback in informal group discussions as well as formal class presentations , and deliver compelling presentations along with a Web-based final deliverable. Includes relevant readings, case discussions, and real-world examples and perspectives from panel discussions with leading data science experts and industry practitioners. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Intro to the legal, policy, and ethical implications of data, including privacy, surveillance, security, classification, discrimination, decisional-autonomy, and duties to warn or act.

Examines legal, policy, and ethical issues throughout the full data-science life cycle — collection, storage, processing, analysis, and use — with case studies from criminal justice, national security, health, marketing, politics, education, employment, athletics , and development. Includes legal and policy constraints and considerations for specific domains and data-types, collection methods, and institutions; technical, legal, and market approaches to mitigating and managing concerns; and the strengths and benefits of competing and complementary approaches.

Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This course surveys privacy mechanisms applicable to systems engineering, with a particular focus on the inference threat arising due to advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning. We will briefly discuss the history of privacy and compare two major examples of general legal frameworks for privacy from the United States and the European Union. We then survey three design frameworks of privacy that may be used to guide the design of privacy-aware information systems. Finally, we survey threat-specific technical privacy frameworks and discuss their applicability in different settings, including statistical privacy with randomized responses, anonymization techniques, semantic privacy models, and technical privacy mechanisms.

Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This course introduces students to experimentation in the social sciences. This topic has increased considerably in importance since , as researchers have learned to think creatively about how to generate data in more scientific ways, and developments in information technology have facilitated the development of better data gathering. Key to this area of inquiry is the insight that correlation does not necessarily imply causality.

In this course, we learn how to use experiments to establish causal effects and how to be appropriately skeptical of findings from observational data. Experiments and Causal Inference: Read Less [-]. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This hands-on course introduces data scientists to technologies related to building and operating live, high throughput Deep Learning applications running on powerful servers in the Cloud as well on smaller and lower power devices at the Edge of the Network.

The material of the class is a set of practical approaches, code recipes, and lessons learned. It is based on the latest developments in the Industry and industry use cases as opposed to pure theory. It is taught by professionals with decades of industry experience. A degree of fluency is expected with the basics of operating systems e. Terms offered: Not yet offered This course provides learners hands-on data management and systems engineering experience using containers, cloud, and Kubernetes ecosystems based on current industry practice. The course will be project-based with an emphasis on how production systems are used at leading technology-focused companies and organizations.

During the course, learners will build a body of knowledge around data management, architectural design, developing batch and streaming data pipelines , scheduling, and security around data including access management and auditability. Student Learning Outcomes: Construct, measure, and identify metrics relating to performance of a system in order to optimize costs and latency of serving inferences for machine learning models.

Demonstrate understanding of Kubernetes for management of machine learning models. Describe the difference between a monolithic and microservice architecture, assess and select appropriate use cases for each. Describe the differences between a development and production system particularly for Machine Learning where the boundaries are blurry. Know when to leverage a cache for serving machine learning models to reduce load on production systems. Understand how stateful systems add complexities to systems engineering.

Understand how to serve machine learning models over an API in real-time. Prerequisites: MIDS students only. We assume you are familiar with generating predictions from a trained machine learning model. Familiarity with command line Bash , Python, and Git. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring This course teaches the underlying principles required to develop scalable machine learning pipelines for structured and unstructured data at the petabyte scale. Students will gain hands-on experience in Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark. Intermediate programming skills in an object-oriented language e. Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring Understanding language is fundamental to human interaction. Our brains have evolved language-specific circuitry that helps us learn it very quickly; however, this also means that we have great difficulty explaining how exactly meaning arises from sounds and symbols.

This course is a broad introduction to linguistic phenomena and our attempts to analyze them with machine learning. We will cover a wide range of concepts with a focus on practical applications such as information extraction, machine translation, sentiment analysis, and summarization. Data Science W Terms offered: Fall , Summer , Spring A continuation of Data Science W Exploring and Analyzing Data , this course trains data science students to apply more advanced methods from regression analysis and time series models. Central topics include linear regression, causal inference, identification strategies, and a wide-range of time series models that are frequently used by industry professionals.

Throughout the course, we emphasize choosing, applying, and implementing statistical techniques to capture key patterns and generate insight from data. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate techniques given the problem under consideration, the data available, and the given timeframe.

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