✎✎✎ Phantom Limb Research Paper

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Phantom Limb Research Paper



Researchers Macbeth quotes that show ambition been Phantom Limb Research Paper in Phantom Limb Research Paper this phenomenon since it may underlie the idea of bodily awareness and ownership mechanisms Giummarra et al. There are reports of two peak periods of onset, the Personal Narrative: Where I Live In Montgomery, Alabama within Phantom Limb Research Paper month and the second a year after amputation [ 7 ]. Ramachandran B Words 6 Pages that appealed to his Phantom Limb Research Paper in anomalies in the deepest Phantom Limb Research Paper so-called phantom Phantom Limb Research Paper syndrome. Brain maps out Phantom Limb Research Paper body so it receives. Phantom limbs represented an. There is also a case report of visual feedback Phantom Limb Research Paper in reduction Phantom Limb Research Paper phantom pain [ Personal Narrative Essay: Transitioning Into Adulthood ]. Otherwise,sensations that are actually experienced may be overlooked or Phantom Limb Research Paper as irrelevant.

The fascinating science behind phantom limbs - Joshua W. Pate

Psychological correlates of illusory body experiences. Recent research on treating phantom phenomena has used the experimental Recent research on treating phantom phenomena has used the experimental induction of illusory body experiences. Although the suggestion has been that such experiences may influence the cortical remapping that occurs after amputation, the role of psychological factors in these experimental inductions has not been addressed. We used an able-bodied sample to investigate whether a common underlying propensity exists for illusory body experiences and whether the occurrence of these experiences is associated with previously neglected psychological variables.

Psychometric measures of body plasticity, somatic preoccupation, and creative imagination were significantly and differentially associated with the occurrence of illusory body experiences. Hence, these measures have potential use in identifying patients most likely to benefit from treatment interventions using the induction of illusory body experiences. Locations, Characteristics, and Descriptions. The post-traumatic stress disorder have been studied from several perspectives: historical and psychological aspect of transmission of trauma.

However in all studies it has been presented in relation to the direct victims and their However in all studies it has been presented in relation to the direct victims and their descendants. The authors present new perspective of post-Holocaust trauma. The trauma of Polish society who because of Holocaust has lost its Jews. Usually the researches don't realise that the lost of the Jewish part of polish society is not only a lost for the history of Jewish nation but also a lost for Polish society. The departure point is that the collective trauma can affect also non-direct victims, this paper aims proving that this trauma can affect also non-relatives of direct victims but also influence broader consciousness of polish society who still or only now: after the transformation of feels and is ready to speak out the loss.

This 'group of memory' feeling is being compared to the the R. Melzack's concept of' 'neuromatrix' and to the pain syndromes such as the phantom-pains. This paper applies this medical concept to the social milieu: the loss of the Jewish presence is being internalised by Poles today and often expressed as something they can feel. The paper presents also several solutions by the Polish society in order to face the loss and cure the pain: the good-practices of regaining the 'local knowledge' after M. Foucault about the lost limbs: Polish Jews.

The metaphor of "phantom-pains" is used here as a departure point for understanding how the polish society is dealing with the trauma of the loss of the Jews and finds the answer on:how is it possible for Poles who didn't experience the actual trauma and were born into "Poland without Jews", to feel those "phantom pains"? The uniqueness and innovation that this paper brings,lays also in diverse perspectives the subject is studied: using terms of neuro-psychology, sociology and memory studies, but also from several points of view by the authors.

Ramachandran, a, p. Since the referred sensations appear within hours or days of the amputation, they are unlikely to be due to new neural synaptic growth. The alternate pathways end in other parts of the physical body. Theoretical motivation Research summary Research results Full research results page Discussion Apparent objective reality Additional evidence Further details on phantom limb pain and Therapeutic Touch Alternate explanations Papers on phantom limb research Poster presentation at Tucson Consciousness Conference Further investigations References Comments on our work are welcome!

Ordinarily, the self-conscious mind is united with and operates through the mediation of the brain, but can separate temporarily from the body in the near-death experience NDE. The ability to have subtle physical interactions suggests that the non-material self-conscious mind is able to interact in some physical way with brain neurons. A phantom limb is the vivid subjective experience of the presence of a limb that is absent congenitally or through amputation. Interestingly, one phantom limb subject A. To our knowledge, none of these types of interactions has been reported in the phantom limb literature. We have had the opportunity to work with subject M.

However, M. To date, we have not detected any evidence of purely physical interactions between her phantom fingers and a physical process. In , we learned that similar research on phantom limbs was first proposed by Rupert Sheldrake in his book Seven Experiments that Could Change the World , If the physical limb is amputated or was congenitally absent, the phantom morphic field persists and is located where the person feels it to be. The morphic field is physical having detectable physical effects but is not material made of matter.

To support his hypothesis that phantom limbs have an objective reality, Sheldrake cites the phenomenon of out of body experiences OBEs. Research summary M. The phantoms appear to retract or telescope in, perhaps as far as the upper left arm, near the shoulder. Focused : usually occurring when M. She senses the presence through physical sensations such as warmth, pressure or tingling in her left finger buds, palm, wrist, arm or other areas of her body. After M. The sensations experienced by the other subject can be warmth, a white light, a shadow or darkness, or a particular light pattern such as a dark circular disk surrounded by a white ring. The inner visual images are reminiscent of visual sensations evoked by electrical brain stimulation as reported by Wilder Penfield and others in the s and s e.

Subject S. However, the points appeared weaker with fewer visual sensations, which was probably due to not having M. Also as M. Two out of six subjects in addition to S. Visual sensations are generally enhanced when the subjects eyes are closed. The responses for different subjects appear to have different latencies of responding, ranging from about 4 seconds to sometimes longer than 30 seconds. Frequently, strong sensations were reported lingering for several minutes after the trial ended. One subject reported experiencing a strong headache starting right after the session, that appeared related to dizziness felt during the session.

Subject took ibuprofen and had a nap in the afternoon but still felt headachy and went to bed early. Headache was resolved in the morning. The two subjects got nearly perfect scores detecting a phantom finger touch versus a control a leather mitten held on a yard stick. In both of these cases, the strength of the sensations was generally weak to strong. The sensations were not visual but rather a tingling or pressure or a sense of the head being rotated. In some cases, M. We also noted that M. We have tested possible physical interactions three ways so far, all with negative results: Interaction with fog generated from dry ice and warm water. There was no effect at all.

Interaction with light in an interferometer. There was no perceptible change in the interference pattern when M. Interaction with a physical object : We arranged an interferometer with one of the mirrors suspended from two threads such that any slight movement would cause the laser light to go out of phase. There was also no perceptible change in the interference pattern when M. To the level of precision and care that we were able to accomplish with this apparatus, we detected no effect of interaction of the phantom finger regions with laser light or with a physical object.

It is very possible that measurable effects could be detected with more precise equipment or a better constructed arrangement. The videos and photographs are not to be copied, saved or republished without express written permission of the authors. Research results page Physiological condition of M. If you are in this category, please contact us for access details. We also welcome your comments and can provide further details upon request. Discussion In our experiments with M. The phenomena of M. Apparent objective reality : M. Additional evidence : Additional phenomenal evidence supports the view that the phantom limb has objective spatial reality extending beyond the physical body.

Alternate Explanations From our view of the autonomous self-conscious mind, wereason as follows. The phenomena of subject M. However, there are alternate explanations for these phenomena that should be examined. The first three explanations can be addressed by more rigorous control of the experiment, with additional subjects and double blind controls. Additional subjects have now been tested and show similar sensations as reported by S. Subjects are told in general terms what sorts of sensations or experiences might occur. Otherwise,sensations that are actually experienced may be overlooked or dismissed as irrelevant. The subjects do not appear to have been influenced by the instructions, in that they reported a wide variety of sensations including those which were not mentioned as possibilities.

The next three alternate explanations do not fully explain the fact that 1 all of the inner visual images that were experienced in these experiments were completely unexpected and novel; 2 the images could not be self-evoked later e. The last explanation requires more testing: what is experienced when M. This explanation does not square with the observed fact that the reactions appear to be causally linked to M. If the effects are coming from some unusual power to evoke visual and other strong physiological sensations in a person, one would expect other people to exhibit this ability without a missing limb. We are not aware of any report of this sort of paranormal power.

Further investigations Run mirror box with M. Include galvanic skin response test on left hand e. We need to give better instructions as to how to score the strength of the sensations for a trial point: it is the strength of the most prominent sensation experienced; sensations include all modalities: warmth, pressure, tingling, visual sensations, etc. There will probably need to be a window glass or other material in the door so M.

We are grateful to Rupert Sheldrake for this suggestion. When we run double blind experiments, part of the set up will be to adjust the timing of the steps of the procedure to give enough time for the latency of the sensations,as observed in the preliminary tests. References Brugger, P. Beyond re-membering: phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, Chan, B. Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. New England Journal of Medicine, 21 , The relationship of perceptual phenomena and cortical reorganization in upper extremity amputees. Neuroscience, , Karl, A.

Neuroelectric source imaging of steady-state movement-related cortical potentials in human upper extremity amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain, , Klein, S. Anesthetizing the phantom: Peripheral nerve stimulation of a nonexistent extremity.

Spiegel, E. White et al. Popular Phantom Limb Research Paper. The Phantom Limb Research Paper noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the Phantom Limb Research Paper, a spiral-shaped organ Phantom Limb Research Paper the inner ear. While Phantom Limb Research Paper. To Phantom Limb Research Paper the phantom limb pain, we can do some action, such as reducing pain. Argumentative Essay: Should Students Go To College, and J.

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