⌛ Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts

Saturday, June 19, 2021 3:55:39 PM

Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts



Using 's tech It uses 24 resistors and two rotary switches: one position, 1-pole, shorting switch; one 6-position, 2-pole, shorting switch. The 4th-order Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts crossover functions much like the 2nd-order LR crossover, as both drivers are down -6dB at the crossover frequency, so they sum to unity; it differs in that it requires that Essay On Urbanization And Suburbanization drivers are in phase No one was saved or happy. Transformer-Coupled MOSFET Output Stages Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts writing about how class-D amplifiers could be built Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts a tube-based power amplifier in my last post, I wondered about an alternative approach, one that exploited Social Anxiety Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts high-voltage power supply used by Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts tube-based output stage. Night Of Bloody Horror This violent meat-clever splatter murder movie tells the story of Wesley, former mental patient who Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts out on a killing spree hacking up beautiful women, all of whom were his former I have not personally Case Study: Brown V. Board Of Education anyone who died in the pandemic, and going through those cocky initial posts followed by these Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts terror, then their obituaries - it's not a Persuasive Essay On Why People Should Not Wear Seatbelts.

Persuasive Speech on Wearing a Seatbelt

She is headed back to the same hospital next Friday for a hopefully minor, but inpatient surgery. The numbers at this hospital are about the same as they were in April, and thankfully that includes even lower ICU occupancy. My mom has had cancer for more than 20 years now, and the treatment has finally caught up with her. This minor procedure could turn into an extended stay if it goes sideways, so she might wind up needing one of those beds. Intersecting with the AntiMLM subreddit that is getting a huge influx of visitors on the back of the Lularoe documentary, MLMs that insisted on holding their conventions in-person have seen COVID outbreaks with the Paparazzi convention counting deaths alone.

Attendees were hastily instructed by their up lines to scrub their social media of any mention of catching COVID, with Paparazzi corporate quietly deleting the sales pages of deceased attendees. This has nothing to do with the death penalty. Nobody is sentencing these people to death; their misfortune is a entirely self-inflicted, and b blowback from their own actions which have also caused harm to others. This is Wile E. Coyote atop a rocket slamming into a cliff, entirely unassisted by the Road Runner. What is the alternative? To celebrate the rich tapestry of the marketplace of ideas in which they have so enthusiastically peddled the dogshit sandwiches of their particular ideas?

I suspect that a great many more people would agree with you if the people featured in the subreddit hadn't already denied everyone else's humanity first. The striking thing about the sub-reddit is the sameness of the posts. Each award-winner posts the same half-dozen memes on their Facebook, accompanied by the same kind of hyper-aggressive rhetoric which is abandoned upon admission to hospital. The same requests for prayers when they enter the ICU. The same hopefulness from loved ones when the patient is intubated survival is unlikely at this point. The same eulogies about what a wonderful person the deceased was, and the same GoFundMe to support their dependents life insurance being unaffordable, I guess. Frequent mentions of "prayer warriors", whatever those are.

There is some kind of sub-culture that is well-adapted to be devastated by the virus. On a Reddit-specific note, it'll be interesting to see what happens with HCA, given that the company has a long history of being ruthless with subs that get attention in the media, regardless of content or ideology, but will let others fester for years on end as long as no one on the C-suite has to go on record with a journalist about it. Just a couple weeks ago, the CEO posted a thread about how they weren't going hard after disinformation because of a supposed need for a "free exchange of ideas" between scientific knowledge and death cultists.

As Sciatrix pointed out, eloquently and with compassion above, this short-sighted hatred for a citizenry gone astray is misplaced. Look upward. Look to a leadership playing a much longer game. I think this is very true. While yes, these people have been "spreading lies," I believe intent matters, and it's clear that most of them believed what they were saying. They believed whoever was telling them that COVID is a hoax, that vaccines are dangerous, that their immune systems would take care of them. They believed these lies enough to act in accordance with those beliefs and ultimately to die because they fell for this misinformation.

It's simplistic to dismiss them as people willing to get us all killed - they did not see it that way. I think anger toward them is completely understandable as an emotional reaction - they caused real harm because of their beliefs. And I don't blame anyone who just can't feel compassion for them at this point. But I do feel sorry for them - I see these deaths as tragic, especially when so many of them have left young children. And I don't think I'm wrong to feel that way. I respect your right to make this choice for yourself, even though I do not believe it is the appropriate choice for me.

I mostly try not to think about everyone who's died of covid. And I especially try not to think about the deaths of strident or agressive anti-vaxxers because I think if I gave way to any kind of schadenfreude, my grief and rage over everything would just swallow me up. This is the thing that gets me. All these kids are suffering needlessly because of willful misinformation and political posturing and nobody with the power or reach to change that gives a single flying fuck. Emotions are complicated. For example, each one of these cases marks the removal of a voice that was actively encouraging people to put themselves and others at risk. Regardless of how it happens the removal of such a thing is to be celebrated. They believed these things because of their vile priors.

Because they were racist, because they were dominionists, because they believe their people are better than others, because they believe that they're entitled to prop up their own lives with the deaths of as many people as it takes. With the exception of the very young, the very old, and the profoundly mentally ill, they were "deceived" because they wanted to be and have arranged their lives around the belief that they can think and feel whatever they want without consequence.

They've been encouraged in their beliefs by awful people, which hasn't helped, but that doesn't mean they were implanted surgically by third parties. That said, while I understand the subreddit as a coping mechanism, I fear it would put too much stress on my human decency for me to be a frequent visitor. I don't believe I'm required to sympathize with these folks to continue to believe that they deserve medical care and whatever persuasive efforts actually stand a chance of working, but, as I have not yet managed to cultivate the kind of truly impersonal compassion that keeps some people working to help the "unworthy," I don't want to chance it.

I also don't like the way it tends to reinforce the just world fallacy, which it's far too easy to fall into. But claiming it is naked hatred then saying people here are embracing naked hatred as an ethos is absolutely ridiculous and has no place here. Each award-winner posts the same half-dozen memes on their Facebook There are bingo cards. Spots include lion meme, prayer warriors, china virus, "this virus is no joke," etc. The point here is that these people are all posting the same stupid shit. It's the same story, over and over.

Yes but the anger here is that all of these award winners can't see that. They vote against their own interests over and over, in order to own the libs or whatever. It's possible to be angry with leadership AND frustrated with these selfish, selfish, racist, horrible people. It's weird that NOW we're supposed to be compassionate for the people who were voting for the people who put kids in concentration camps and cheated to get SC justices who are taking away rights to choose. The chickens are coming home to roost, and it's because of these people's actions. They have eschewed all attempts at logic and reason, as well as compassion. If they don't want to engage with us reasonably, I don't see why we're supposed to extend compassion to them post-mortem.

Me neither, but covid doesn't give a shit and this is the entire point of the sub. There isn't a single person in that sub who was punished by anyone but themselves. The information is out there, available to all. They keep betting against the house and eventually they lose. No one is 'punishing' THEM. These ignorant and wrong-headed HCA winners are the ones punishing everyone around themselves with potential death or crippling affliction.

If the results of their stupidity is that they remove themselves from circulation permanently, so it goes. At least it's one less loudspeaker amplifying poisonous lies. Most of the "winners" seem pretty small fry. The big fish are the mayors and administrators and governors and of course the previous administration , but I presume most of them have in fact been vaccinated and will probably never face any consequences for sabotaging public health.

The older I get, the more grateful I am for my mom's refrain during my childhood: you're entitled to your feelings, but responsible for your actions. So an important reminder for all of us: it's OK to feel whatever ways you feel, sad or angry or hateful or murderous or compassionate or anything. It's our actions that matter. As a Canadian, it's the GoFundMe stage that really gets me because I would imagine it's the result of relatives saddled with health care debt, on top of everything else going on.

I guess socialism is acceptable when it's just friends, relatives and sympathetic strangers putting money in your hat. I think some degree of detachment is warranted, personally. The personal choice doctrine so often peddled by these types of folks does cut both ways. What purpose does that really serve? But the whole point is that too many people don't know this is happening.

Or won't acknowledge it. And I find this "grim document" cathartic not because I find joy in seeing Covid deniers get some sort horrible cosmic payback but because it is a place for these hidden horrible truths to be made public. Detachment isn't an option for our family and I think detachment is a large part of why this pandemic persists. I guess socialism is acceptable when it's just friends, relatives and sympathetic strangers putting money in your hat Because then it's not socialism, but moral private charity. Socialism is when the state takes your money and uses it to help t h o s e p e o p l e.

It is very difficult to have empathy for callous, willfully evil people who apparently do not have empathy for anyone else. Last I checked, personally - I was nowhere near Jesus or Buddha levels of empathy. Good on you, if you can give them the time-of-day and a bit of your heart - however, I have find that life is too short to continue to tolerate jerks. Otherwise their behaviour will dissappear and the cycle will continue without anyone challenging it. Even if, their ilk never actually changes their mind privately - but, perhaps chooses to self-censor the idiocy that they personally post, because their is a possible social consequence, then that is a win - as they won't be convincing other people with their memetic thought viruses.

There's a truly revealing aspect to this, which was also brought up in the coverage of right-wing radio hosts dying - it uncovers the exact point in the right-wing power structure where people above the line know that the lies are lies, and people below the line do not. All of the Fox News hosts, congresscritters, governors, and wealthy donors who carefully refuse to disclose their vaccination status Because they are above that line. Afterward, the nurse and doctor sobbed with the patient.

Intensifying that, he said, are patients or their loved ones mistreating doctors and nurses. Threats have on occasion required a police response. Screaming, profanity-laden insults are a daily occurrence. One patient threw his own feces at a doctor. Some, even in the face of an intubation tube, question the need to be vaccinated or the effectiveness of the medicine being prescribed.

Sara Nyquist, an emergency medicine physician, said she has been asked by a patient if she is a Republican or a Democrat. Who do you think is reading it? Certainly not vaccine deniers and conspiracy theorists and the sorts of people who follow their intuition and disinformation poisoned brains straight into oblivion. Anyone who knows an anti vaccine, anti mask person will understand this. At 2, or 20, subscribers I would have agreed with this, but at , and rising I strongly suspect it will start to impinge on broader circles. In particular I can see it becoming a point of pride among anti-vaxxers that they have read the page and have been unmoved by it.

Certainly that is what I will be challenging my cousins to do. And maybe one or two of them will benefit from it, if not by taking the vaccine themselves then by at least being less pugnacious about it. I count that as a win. And therefore I, because I made a moral choice, will be protected from the virus — I mean also because of science but now because I am a good and smart person and the world can start making sense again. Analysis of what people deserve , in this instance, is really only relevant for believers in the Just World delusion.

This is about what happens when people put up a wall of denial against reliable epidemiological reportage and choose to pin their faith on unprincipled propaganda instead. HCA is a grim cautionary tale about the perils of magical thinking, and the perils of treating a mindless, highly infectious virus as if it were capable of persuasion via the customary bad-faith Gish Gallop of self-contradictory nonsense. It has nothing to do with justice; it has everything to do with modelling reality correctly or not.

And people who lose touch with reality are more likely to die because reality is what it is and, except for the human parts, gives no shits at all what any of us thinks about it. Everyone has their limit. I think this presages much worse for us, nationally. Do you not understand that this subreddit is how some people are coping with that frustration? The people who post in the subreddit and have these discussions are having these discussions amongst themselves, they are not posting on the mourners' social media. And believe me, I have seen that as well - just as I have seen members of the Westboro Baptist church and those of that ilk picketing the funerals of people who died of AIDS. Shoving one's views into the faces of those mourning would be cruel and would be unforgiveable if that is what the people in this subreddit are doing.

They are not - they are confining their frustration to a single space, to express that frustration in a space where - likely - the families of the deceased will not be seeing it. Those who are profoundly frustrated by their pigheadedness get to discharge that frustration safely, and the bereaved are left in peace. I suspect you would prefer this to the alternative. That is certainly a justification for a viewpoint. One can choose to subscribe to it if they so choose. I choose not to. With all due respect, you do seem to be behaving as if you were.

Perhaps you are not aware that this is how you are coming across. But it seems to me that the undercurrent of the commentary is largely about trying to understand. Trying to find a point of view, a set of principles, or a mental framework that makes this emotionally-crushing, mostly-preventable wave of death and tragedy make some sort of sense. Looking for a pattern that could make the truth less bleak, that could offer some hope for the future. I think that is a kind of empathy.

The Slate article sure casts around looking for a reason to be morally appalled at what is, in the end, a collection of anonymous nobodies expressing themselves, in their own words, in more-or-less public forums. I certainly wouldn't have been aware of the scale, depth, and resilience of the anti-vax sentiment without it. I have avoided Reddit for a long time other than reading the occasional thread. My personal situation over the past year and a half how long has it been? The fact that our last President walks free is just a bright, shining, buzzing neon flashing sign that justice is for losers. The right wing had a choice and they chose pandering to the worst of American society.

Whatever intellectual cover and moral standing they had is long gone. These are their people. My kid missed a year and a half of school to protect the vulnerable members of our community. I'm so goddamn grateful to live in a state with a governor with backbone who did the right thing consistently in the face of an insane, braying minority of chucklefucks who would flay her alive for first of all, being a woman and second of all, leading.

I'm so lucky that they are a minority here so that we can have nice things even as they show up to scream "all lives matter" and "roll coal" with their stupid Gadsden flags flying from their stupid trucks. White people. Some anti-mask idiots even showed up at my kid's school the first week to chant things on the front step. But we are lucky right now. As far as I am aware, all staff is vaccinated. We have near zero cases of Covid positive in the school with the only reported cases so far from the first week with exposure origin outside of the school.

Other parts of the state have been surging with Delta variant. Because those smaller areas didn't get hit as hard with the Covid waves, they are more Republican which means their identity demands that they eschew masks, and they don't like our governor. No woman will tell them what to do! Because of them, we have a statewide mask mandate and that means my kid can go to school. I read the HCA to remind myself that while we are failing at justice and commonsense and fairness and empathy for each other and for our children and our safety net is tatters because of politics - the virus doesn't care. You want to come to my school and scream at the building about your freedoms and scare the kids and concern everyone in the community that your anti-social bullshit just might tip over into something really fucking scary?

You are allowed to do that. We are letting you. We fail our children everyday with this. But the virus I need to remind myself that it is real. I have asked myself so many times in my head and out loud - "Are we still in a pandemic? Is this real? Seeing my uncle post racist memes that don't make any sense unless you're stupid or a totally depraved dickhead? Is that my family? Are they okay? When Herman Cain died, I wept for his people. I've been doing a lot of crying during this time but this really hit me. I saw these photos of all these smiling black people and just wept for them. They are into him. They followed him. They believe in him. He took them to death's door. He led them there. He abandoned them in his pursuit of power.

It's a goddamn tragedy. That bizarre performance of a Breitbart article last week seemed designed to give these people an out--"What? And the libs didn't tell me this, just told me I should get vaccinated for the good of the community so of course I told them to fuck off??? Sign me up!!! That bizarre performance of a Breitbart article last week seemed designed to give these people an out Was it this one?

There are people who decided, implicitly or explicitly, that they would rather die than make an entirely private, wordless admission that the loudest anti-vaxer I know personally is one of my oldest friends. He's as far from a political conservative as you can get, yet has managed to chase his radical-anarchist-extremism to the same basic place and thus, it seems, a very similar quandary. So much of his identity has become invested in his buy-in to the con that to step back now and acknowledge just how completely, foolishly wrong he's been for years -- I fear his ego just isn't up to it.

Death before humiliation. Throwing a petard to hoist the libs. Can we be grateful even for the things that are terrible? What is there to be grateful about here? I can be grateful for that even if everything else about it is awful. Over and over again people state those who die are obese or ill or old, as if that matters About that Vietnam also benefits from a populace whose median age is six years younger than that of the U. A sub like that serves nothing more than to state plainly how reality works.

Nothing more? That is a desperately needed lesson in this country. You know what freaked me out? Remember back when this pandemic started, really really early, before we knew what was going to happen? We didn't know how the virus could be transmitted, so any packaged food we'd get, we'd wipe down with anti-microbial cloths. We'd wash our hands the way you do before you're admitted to the NICU. So my family tried to stock up on some supplies. Just basics: pasta, bottled water, basic foodstuffs, bottles of alcohol, toilet paper. We didn't go whole-hog crazy or anything, just tried to get like 2 weeks worth of stuff, instead of one like we used to do. I should have had some stuff stocked away, but I thought that was crazy and didn't want to live in fear all of the time.

That my sense of the general goodness of people was wrong and naive and stupid. So when I see these people who put their trust in god and their own immune systems, despite all of the information available to them, seeing these people who have been consistently ignorant, and proud of that ignorance, and shouting about how proud they are from the rooftops, it gives me hope: they aren't right. People aren't all uniformly assholes. Just some of them. Just this scared, stupid, dangerous, noisy group of people, that are going to be scared and stupid and dangerous and noisy no matter what.

Is this schadenfreude? But it's more than that. It's more about hope for my kids, that the world is big and scary, but that doesn't mean we have to be cruel to survive. And now here we are. That needs a warning. I can't read past the first paragraph without thinking that I might seriously spiral into some kind of abyss of no return. I would love to read interviews with people who were rabidly anti-vax, anti-mask, "plandemic" types and came back from the brink of covid death.

Like ventilated for weeks, long rehab etc. AND who had family members die. I mean really what I'd like is a view inside the minds when they are at deaths door. I know lots of them regret not getting vaccinated. BUt how do they feel about the misinformation they were fed and the people who fed it to them? What proportion go on believing it's all a hoax to the very end? Obviously people on the brink of death are in no position to be interviewed, though, so I'll settle for the people who came back from death's door.

This isn't schadenfreude I looked at a few of the "awarded" subreddits, and though I expected to feel schadenfreude I do to some extent with the radio hosts , I really just felt sad. I have a sneaking suspicion that it only lasted as long as it did both here and in the United States because the people releasing the information would like to see everyone lose some weight anyway. The etymology is obvious once you see it. I understand, and I will tow the line. Merely remaining well-informed is generally sufficient. I can't read past the first paragraph without thinking that I might seriously spiral into some kind of abyss of no return You'll be fine as long as you don't actually click any of the links that go to Breitbart, for which "some kind of abyss of no return" is a completely fair description.

Was it this one? I will tow the line Also gonna need you to reign it in even if you're loathe to do so. I'm sorry. That's just the shallow end, buddy. Wait until you read about volcano deniers in Spain. A dead person has lost their shot at redemption. A dead person is only a negative space full of pain that radiates outward and destroys the lives of all those connected to them. What's truly disgusting is the human cost of their wilful, pig-headed, unbelievable-reality-denying ignorance. You don't win a HCA because you died of Covid.

You don't win an HCA because you refused vaccination and to mask up. And then they get killed by the very thing they mocked the rest of us for taking seriously. You know who I have empathy for? The patients who are in pain, or dying because they can't get care because these unvaccinated-and-proud-of-it idiots are clogging up the ICUs. The doctors and nurses that are getting spat on and called murderers by the very patients they're trying to save, because they won't give them horse worm paste, and are burning out because they can't take any more from the never-ending tide of the unvaccinated filling the hospitals, requiring weeks of intensive care, then dying anyway.

Winners of the HCA did their absolute best to kill themselves and - others - in an incredibly painful way. They succeeded. Yes, I'm goddamn angry. Angry at all we've lost, angry that we're still where we are when we have amazingly effective vaccines developed in record time - because the right wing media, politicians and their supporters are literally now a death cult, and they want to kill us, and gloat about it. So fuck em. I have no empathy for them. I have some sympathy for their families and loved ones, but you know what?

This is what they wanted, this is what they proudly promoted, this is what they were willing to happen to everyone else. It's not what they deserved, but it's absolutely the outcome that they were doing their best to achieve in their idiocy. I'm not glad they caught Covid, but neither am I sad they're gone. More people might live now they're dead. The HCA forum has done good. It has brought about people who have been vaccinated because the social media fug, promoted and spread by these same award winners, meant they were genuinely unsure - the brutal reality that the media are covering up with anodyne statistics, that dying from covid is an incredibly painful and horrifying way to go, and once you hit that ICU unvaccinated, your chances are slim indeed.

That people are offended? After qanon, and all the racist, sexist crap we've had to put up with for years? The US attempted insurrection? Ending democracy? Trying their hardest to turn the US into a theocratic state where women's bodies belong to the state? Wishing death on gay and trans people? I really, really don't give a flying monkey's wet fart that they're offended. On the lack of empathy of the victims. Also a somewhat simplistic view of human relationships. Almost everyone has empathy. These people who are trying to 'own the libs' and such don't have a lack of empathy, I'm sure they are very good to their friends and neighbours.

The difference generally is how far that empathy reaches. Who is your in-group that you like, and who isn't. Everyone has different borders to in- and out-groups. Some people consider their tribe religious, political or regional only to be in-group. Some people consider the whole country, or continent, or culture to be in-group at least for these purposes. Some people consider all of humanity.

That takes work to put into practice. Some people consider mammals generally and may go vegetarian or all animate beings and go vegan. Some people consider only their immediate family, or only themself. If you are going to be anti-vax for political purposes you have to have a constrained in-group. Places like the HCA try to point out that even small in-groups are negatively affected by sociopathic behavior in ways that wasn't as obvious in the before-times. The states that are having the biggest problems coincidentally have a lot of empty places for statues right now and if this guy can keep it up I think he deserves to occupy one.

The world is a better place with HCA winners not in it soundtrack for the thread posted by flabdablet at AM on September 22 [ 2 favorites ]. If the Left had any decency, they'd vocally decline to get vaccinated and drop like flies in solidarity with the conservatives. A friend of mine a few decades ago coined a phrase that's stuck with me: if you're going to be dumb, you've gotta be tough. Naomi Wu trots out a similar sentiment: play stupid games, win stupid prizes. Humans have enormous brains because evolution has thrown increasingly complicated problems at us that we need those brains to solve. Willfully not using that brain and thereby dying of stupidity is counter to everything that makes us human. That said, even stupid people are human.

It's not schadenfreude I feel. It's a gentle reassurance that of all our skills as human beings paying attention to our surroundings and reacting appropriately is one of the most important skills we have. This reassurance doesn't make me happy. It makes me sad; folks have given up their evolutionary birthright intelligence for whatever reason and the environment has culled them out. I guess that's good for humanity in general? It's still pretty icky. But that's nature: red of tooth and sharp of claw. And honey covid don't give a shit. It's all just a huge fucking shame.

Here's an abbreviated listing of just the first four stages. Stage 1. Stage 2. It becomes harder and harder for you to breathe. We transfer you to the intensive care unit. Stage 3. Stage 4. An arterial blood draw confirms that the oxygen content in your blood is critically low. We prepare to intubate you. We connect you to a ventilator. You are sedated and paralyzed, fed through a feeding tube, hooked to a Foley catheter and a rectal tube. Trump has a whole lot of responsibility for this.

He was the leader in making Covid denial and mask refusal a political shibboleth. His initial reaction was that the whole thing was just totally unfair, everyone was talking about the pandemic instead of how the stock market was doing well and how great Trump is, it must be the Democrats' "new hoax", and as time went on, there was no progress from that. I remember wasting the good part of a night on the HCA subreddit a month ago. I can go there right now, and nothing has changed other than the timestamps are new. My reaction now is bafflement over how much time some of these people spend on social media, and all in the exact same way. Copy-pasting the same memes, high-fiving each other over owning the libs, eventually donating money to each other's GoFundMes.

It's a community in itself, but one that doesn't do anything productive other that supporting each other's imagined victimization and exaggerated rage. I would recommend others do the same and especially read the posts that mention Slate or media in their titles I read the article yesterday, visited the sub yesterday, and saw this post by someone angry at the article. People are being angry and nasty, because people like to be angry and nasty. Sometimes that gets results, but it is what it is. Punching someone who died because of a bad information diet, in general, feels like punching down. I have strongly mixed feelings about HCA, but the one thing I've taken away from it is how strong that need to be right and in control is in humanity.

So strong that you even some of these stories where they don't change - like there was one about a woman ranting about COVID and how people were telling her she'd feel bad if she gave it to her daughter with asthma. And yet there's the mom still with the cognitive dissonance about it. It's confounding and disheartening. I have awful asthma - that's why the story stayed with me posted by drewbage at AM on September 22 [ 8 favorites ].

They're not just killing themselves, they are killing others. I have no sympathy for people committing slow motion manslaughter. The right wing has been at war with the reality-based community for decades now, explicitly so since Bush-Cheney, and arguably so for much longer. Even though there are some. This course will look at the following Christian doctrines:.

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Effects of Media. Sewing and Crocheting. Coding and Computer Programming. Robotics using Dash. Computers and Communications Devices with 3D printing. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 6 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation. Formative and summative assessment of the grade 6 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including group sharing, oral or written assignments, collaborative activities, and participation.

Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 6 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including group sharing, oral or written assignments, collaborative activities, and participation. Students will explore puberty and all that it means for both boys and girls. Do we have any food lovers? Students will apply their Chemistry learning to create a cookbook called, Mix-It-Up — Cooking with Chemistry, involving both homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, as well as separated mixtures. Students will enjoy journeying throughout this vast space. With a focus on the Milky Way and its parts, this unit starts off with an extreme environment on Earth that bridges the gap between Earth and Space. We then move beyond Earth to explore the planets and other components of the Universe.

There are a variety of hands on activities from projects to experiments, which help students gain a more concrete and practical understanding of the content. Each unit includes an intriguing project that applies to the topic. Student will require a few resources for hands- on activities. There is a list of materials on the course page. Students must download Zoomin order to participate in weekly meetings. Rosetta Stone Level 1 Units 3 and 4. Mandarin 6 uses the Rosetta Stone program units 3 and 4, level 1 that consists of language lessons speaking, listening, pronunciation, writing, review , story readings and live tutorials as well as cultural and FFPOL projects.

Shopping, names of several stores, things commonly bought, verbs about places and objects, express likes and dislikes, compare things, things to do around town, sports, cost of items, common currencies, common shopping phrases, different forms of payment, describing objects one shops for, comparatives, quantity, comparison words, shopping. Students will be assessed on the accuracy of their pronunciation, matching pictures to the correct phrases, writing, comprehension, games activities and listening skills.

Criterion and the rubric for the activation and creative works project are found in the Moodle course. Unit 3: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the activation project and creative works project. Unit 4: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the interview project where students interview a native Mandarin Chinese speaker. Students will also have their final, general live teacher meeting to review their progress in Moodle to ensure that all components outlined in the course are completed and they have submitted completion.

Activation: acquiring some basic clothing vocabulary to begin the course. We will examine Canada and compare with other countries in our wonderful world. We will use various online sources for information to gain insight into how other people live and look at life, beginning to understand how our worldview shapes our lives. Students will complete a variety of assignments and projects to share their learning and be challenged to consider what they are reading and thinking with a Christian worldview. A brief overview of our history and geography; learning to use online resources.

Culminates in a summative project. Investigating Japanese culture. Culminates in an investigation project of another culture. Cities - examination of concepts of poverty- its causes, effects. Students are invited to design a project that makes a difference after learning about our precious water resources. Students investigate and share their learning about a major city of their choice. Economic self-interest can be a significant cause of conflict among peoples and governments. Complex global problems require international cooperation to make difficult choices for the future. Media sources can both positively and negatively affect our understanding of important events and issues.

Put those together, and you get TechLAB. Technology is the focus of TechLAB, with students learning about coding, robotics, electronics, and the engineering design process. TechLAB has been designed for students who are interested in technology. If your child struggles with motivation to read, write, or engage thoughtfully with their schoolwork, the topics and assignments in TechLAB will activate their imagination as they think about the world, the future, and the impact of technology.

Students will build projects with Lego Mindstorm Robot Inventor kits and design videogames in Tynker. Furthermore, many assignments in TechLAB are submitted in video format, helping students develop excellence in both written and verbal communication skills. TechLAB encourages students to think of their role in the world and the body of Christ as creative people, made in the image of God. Students will read and write about God the Father as creator, the Holy Spirit who lives within us, and Jesus and the power of his grace. Stewardship, compassion, morality, and ethics are touched on throughout the year.

Each week, there is an optional class meeting on Zoom where students will discuss technology and current events, tackle coding problems together, pray together, discuss Biblical topics, and have time to ask questions about the course material and get help with projects and lessons. The world is becoming increasingly technological. TechLAB will help to prepare your student to be a thoughtful and skilled participant in the digital world that is emerging. Once the program is full, it will no longer be available in Encom. Please email the course instructor if you would like your student placed on the waitlist. The teacher is available on Zoom to help with questions, troubleshoot coding problems, and develop writing skills. While asynchronous students will be greatly encouraged to join the weekly Zoom meetings, these meetings will be optional for students who choose to do the course at their own pace.

TechLAB meets the requirements for three subjects in one set of assignments and lessons. As a result, TechLAB requires a significant commitment of time and energy. Students should plan to work on TechLAB for hours per week, for 30 weeks. However, because working with Lego, coding games, and building circuits can be great fun and is highly challenging, it is not uncommon for students to spend many extra hours bringing their design projects to life. While this can add on a lot of time, the experience is enriching and satisfying for students.

In the first week of classes, students will choose three of the following ADST Modules to complete during the year:. Written paragraphs, reports, short answers, creative writing assignments, grammar quizzes, and essays. The Lego Mindstorm Robot Inventor kits will be loaned to each student for 3 months. Weekly Zoom meetings will introduce the lessons and assignments for the week, give instructions, and clarify expectations. Synchronous students commit to keeping pace with the class and to attending the weekly meeting, which will be 45 minutes long. See the Sychronous course schedule here. We will talk about well-known Biblical characters but the focus of this course is not to just read bible stories over again, but rather to start putting it all together as one BIG STORY.

We will look at the Old Testament as God's story of His quest to get back onto right relationship with His creation. We will see how the history of the Children of Israel leads us right to Jesus. Bonus marks for Scripture memorization. Each week there will be some reading to do in your own Bibles, you will listen to an audio clip, sometimes you will watch a movie or a portion of one, listen to music, build a pyramid out of sugar cubes or just write a short reflection on one of the weekly lessons. When the course is complete, you will have a record of how the story of God and His people unfolded. Students are also encouraged to participate regularly in a faith community, have their own personal devotional time, pray and memorize Scripture.

The course is designed to be an engaging online learning experience for students which includes videos, reading, forum posts and writing. Language and text can be a source of creativity and joy. Thinking about thinking exercises and forum post about who we are. How do our confrontations with justice and injustice help shape our identity? Exploring stories and other texts helps us understand ourselves and make connections to others in the world.

Questioning what we hear, read, and view contributes to our ability to be educated and engaged citizens. Exploring stories and texts helps us understand ourselves and make connections to others and to the world. You can explore your memories, thoughts, and feelings to discover who you are. Exploring stories and other texts helps us understand ourselves and make connections to others and to the world. Steps with feedback in the process of writing a summative piece of poetry. Scaffolded steps to writing a personal memoir with feedback throughout then summative assessment criteria.

In Math 7 there are ten units of study. Students will explore the following topics:. Operations with Integers. Cartesian Plane. Project work will include self-reflection and self- evaluation. There will be a final exam at the end of the course. Computer: Laptop or Desktop. Mathematics 7 is a required course for Grade 7 in B. Decimals, fractions, and percents are used to represent and describe parts and wholes of numbers. Computational fluency and flexibility with numbers extend to operations with integers and decimals. Linear relations can be represented in many connected ways to identify regularities and make generalizations. The constant ratio between the circumference and diameter of circles can be used to describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships.

Data from circle graphs can be used to illustrate proportion and to compare and interpret. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 7 core and course competencies through varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation. Formative and summative assessment of the grade 7 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including presentations, oral or written assignments, collaborative activities, research and participation. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 7 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation. The course is designed to be an engaging online learning experience for students which includes videos, readings, lab experiences, projects interactive applets and more.

Physics: students will explore how electricity is generated using. Chemistry: students explore types of matter, atoms, types of atoms, the Periodic Table of Elements, compounds, types of elements and their properties. Students investigate crystals, acids and bases, oxidation and more. Biology: students will take an imaginary journey with Charles Darwin to learn about the Scientific Process and what led to the development of The Theory of Evolution. Students learn about observations, inferences, lab procedure, prediction, comparative and evaluative skills and more.

Students will learn about the difference between facts and theories and how each are developed. Earth Science: students explore how climate change affects all different areas, and even areas that are not contributors to the changes. Climate injustice is a big topic as we are only scratching the surface of what some of the issues are. As well, there are a variety of hands on activities from projects to labs which help students gain a more concrete and practical understanding of the content. Students need regular access to an internet connected computer and the ability to print and upload assignments.

Most supplies for labs and projects can be found around the house. Time commitment for this course is approximately 3 hours per week. Literature invites us to reflect on the human condition by presenting elements from real life in an imaginary form. Words have connotative and denotative values that shape the perception of the audience. The themes of certain texts reflect the concerns of the era in which they were written. To express oneself well, it is essential to follow language conventions, use a rich vocabulary, and pay attention to text organization. Communicating in French helps to develop a sense of belonging to a Francophone community.

Rosetta Stone Level 2 Units 1 and 2. Mandarin 7 uses the Rosetta Stone program units 5 and 6, level 2 that consists of language lessons speaking, listening, pronunciation, writing, review , story readings and live tutorials as well as cultural and FFPOL projects. Activation project, types of buildings, types of stores, asking for directions, following directions, public transportation, directional language, vehicles, verbs used with modes of transportation, various kinds of travel itineraries. Past tense, indirect objects, correspondence, future tense, indirect objects, asking for clarification, school subjects, imperfect tense, different levels of school and students, jobs and workplaces, contrast between past tense and imperfect tense, polite ways to make requests.

Unit 5: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the activation project and creative works project. Unit 6: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the interview project where students interview a native Mandarin Chinese speaker.

Students will also have 2 general meetings with the teacher to review their progress in Moodle to ensure that all components outlined in the course are completed and they have submitted completion. Language Lessons - Teaches by pairing words to images using rich visual imagery and interactive software to help learners think in a new language and to perfect pronunciation. Live Tutoring Sessions - Allows learners to practice and refine conversational skills with native-speaking tutors building on and reinforcing what has been learned in Rosetta Lessons.

In addition to the Rosetta Stone requirements, additional culture specific projects are also required. Live meetings with the course teacher. Face to Face sessions with the teacher to practice and discuss what the student had learned in their lessons. Student will attend Live Tutoring sessions every four weeks. In addition to the Rosetta Stone content, students will be required to submit 3 term projects to their teacher. Each unit concludes with a Milestone, an interactive capstone activity that lets the learner practice key skills learned and apply new language knowledge in Communication, Acquire, interpret, and present information real-life situations.

Student Progress: Complexion of Language Lessons: Core lessons, pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Each unit involves students investigating and reflecting upon the cultures, geography, and history of the people. Each unit culminates in students choosing a presentation topic and sharing their learning in projects in a shared forum. Religious and cultural practices that emerged during this period have endured and continue to influence people. Economic specialization and trade networks can lead to conflict and cooperation between societies. Students will build projects with the Lego Mindstorm EV3 kits and learn electronics and coding with Arduino. With teacher permission, students may study coding in Tynker instead of learning Arduino.

Restoration, community, wisdom, and righteousness are discussed throughout the year. Each week, there is an optional class meeting on Zoom where students will discuss technology and current events, tackle coding problems together, pray together, discuss Biblical topics, encourage each other, and have time to ask questions about the course material and get help with projects and lessons. In the first week of classes, students will choose two of the following ADST Modules to complete during the year:. Students can use curriculum funds to purchase the Arduino Starter Kit.

Reflecting on our preferences and skills helps us identify the steps we need to take to achieve our career goals. The value of work in our lives, communities, and society can be viewed from diverse perspectives. This course will reveal the nature, character and attributes of God in light of Scripture to give teens a better grasp of who God is. It is based on the premise that the more we know and understand God through a careful study of His Word, the greater will be our personal challenge to maintain a right relationship with Him. Based on a semester pacing, this course is based on five, 45 to 60 minute lesson parts every week. Our tribe is a group of people that we identify with - a group that we are part of, whether it is our family, our community, our religious community, our ethnic background, or our nationality.

A tribe can be fans of the same hockey team or the same music band. A tribe can be a church. In the first part of English 8, students will be figuring out who their tribe is, and learning to tell the stories of their people. The second part of the course talks about the shadow side of being part of tribes. What happens when we start to think that our tribe is superior to other tribes? What if we start to hate people from other groups because we are blinded by loyalty to our own? For this part of the course, students will be studying two novels, The Outsiders by S. Hinton, and Wonder by R. This course consists of 28 lessons. Each lesson is designed to take approximately one week, with most weeks comprised of three 40 minute sessions.

Students who wish to complete the course in a single semester can complete the lessons at their own pace. Various written assignments are submitted and marked with feedback each week. These include thinking routines, paragraphs, reports, short answers, forum posts, creative writing assignments, essays, and more. Students are required to stream videos contained within the course content, download and print assignments and note packages, scan either by taking pictures or physically scanning and upload their assignments within Moodle.

The teacher is available on Zoom to help with questions and writing development. Literacy Foundations Math is designed to help students who have fallen behind with their Math skills. Specifically this course is built to support students heading into Workplace Math 10, and Workplace Math As you go through this course you will build the toolkit required to be successful in the lower streams of Math in Grade 10 and This is the paper-based option where a textbook and 3 additional paper resources need to be printed off and completed. If a student is multiple grades behind in their Math level, this is the course for them. The content and skills in this course are generally consistent with expectations at the grade 8 math level.

Students must complete the test question for required lessons in the Unit. Specifically this course is built to support students heading into Workplace Math 10, and is followed up with Literacy Foundations Math Level 6. As you go through this course you will build the toolkit required to be successful in the lower streams of Math Grade 10 and There are many units but they are bite-sized. In Math 8 there are ten units of study. Linear Equations. Financial Literacy. Students must use Zoom in order to participate in weekly meetings.

Mathematics 8 is a required course for Grade 8 in B. Number represents, describes, and compares the quantities of ratios, rates, and percents. Discrete linear relationships can be represented in many connected ways and used to identify and make generalizations. The relationship between surface area and volume of 3D objects can be used to describe, measure, and compare spatial relationships. Analyzing data by determining averages is one way to make sense of large data sets and enables us to compare and interpret.

Exercise through the week at home and family discussions of health topics including nutrition, media messages and Internet safety. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 8 core and course competencies through varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 9 core and course competencies through varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation.

Formative and summative assessment of the grade 8 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including presentations, oral or written assignments, collaborative activities, research and participation. Science: Life processes of cells. Electromagnetic Energy as particle and wave. Kinetic molecular theory and theory of the atom. Geology and Theory of Plate Tectonics. Exploration, colonization, urbanization, migration and conflict in the Medieval World and Renaissance. Computational Thinking and Digital Literacy with computer programming.

Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 8 core and course competencies incorporating varied strategies including group sharing and activities, oral or written assignments, and participation. Earth Science: explore earthquakes, plate tectonics and the structure of the planet. Biology: take an in-depth look at the smallest unit of life, the cell. Explore the various functions of animal cells, plant cells and cells who are creatures in their own right. Physics: explore the properties of light and how it behaves around mirrors, prisms and cameras. Chemistry: learn about the elements that make up our world and how our understanding of atoms has changed over time. Activities include creating a cell model using a medium of your choice, writing speeches for the Prime Minister of Canada about earthquake risks and building your own pinhole camera.

The effectiveness of an argument lies as much in the way ideas are organized as in the argument itself. Through their texts, authors share their identity, culture, perception of the world, and portrait of the era with readers. By organizing ideas and relying on a variety of sources, the originator supports his or her point of view and influences the recipient. Rosetta Stone Level 2 Units 3 and 4. Mandarin 8 uses the Rosetta Stone program units 7 and 8, level 2 that consists of language lessons speaking, listening, pronunciation, writing, review , story reading and live tutorials as well as cultural and FFPOL projects.

Unit 7 Friends and Social Life:. Creative Works Project. Unit 8 Dining and Vacation:. New form of the future, food and restaurant language, landmarks, architectural features, musical instruments, art media, religious buildings, emotions, sight-seeing verbs, sequencing words, common vacation activities, places to go on vacation, things to see on vacation, vacation-themed clothing, weather. Unit 7: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the activation project and creative works project. Unit 8: Students will complete all language lessons in this unit, 3 live teacher sessions tutorials and story recordings along with the interview project where students interview a native Mandarin Chinese speaker.

Activation: learning about leisure time activities of peers living in Latin American countries. This course will examine three foundational peoples and cultures from around the world in the Medieval Era, Europe, Middle East, and Asia. To get a better perspective, we will also look at the foundational beliefs and knowledge that each culture comes to the exchange with so we can better understand the emergence of the First Global Era. Students are required to stream videos, download and print or complete assignments online, scan either by taking pictures or physically scanning and upload their assignments within Moodle. Contacts and conflicts between peoples stimulated significant cultural, social, political change.

Exploration, expansion, and colonization had varying consequences for different groups. Changing ideas about the world created tension between people wanting to adopt new ideas and those wanting to preserve established traditions. Formative and summative assessment of the Grade 9 core and course competencies incorporating audition evaluation form, oral presentation, songs, choreography, performance rubric, self-assessment, observations of growth and working from feedback, homework assignments, and others. In Grade 9 they can focus on 1 of these aspects or do general studies. The world is a complex and beautiful place created by God for us to enjoy. The Visual Arts offer a unique opportunity for students to develop their craft, to imitate and emulate what they see created around them and through recorded history.

We live in a large canvas full of colour, beauty, sound, and life. Image development involves students engaging actively in a purposeful design process. Students will use a variety of common art materials, technologies, and processes to organize the visual elements and principles of design. Students will be expected to maintain a sketchbook, create an advertising campaign for a band, practice one and two point perspective drawing techniques, visit and reflect on an art gallery, view works of note from art history and create a personalized version of a selected master work.

Access to a scanner or camera to capture images and share work. Various Art materials such as paper, pencils, pencil crayon and either acrylic or watercolour paint. Bible 9 is centred on the idea of mastering one's Bible study skills. Some of the topics covered include the origin and inspiration of the Bible as well as how it came to us and the writing of the canon. Other topics taught in this course focus on translation issues, paraphrasing versus standard translations and how to do a 3-step inductive bible study. This course will focus on the Bible, how to read it, the question of inspiration, translation, the use of induction when studying scripture, Biblical themes, literary themes, application, and devotional usage.

Based on a semester pacing, this course is based on 5, 45 to 60 minute lessons parts every week. Students will be working through this book throughout the course. All assignments are supplied within the course and will either be uploaded within, or posted directly to, the course in their appropriate locations. English 9 begins by helping the students to connect to stories from around the world, and hearing about some of the challenges that people around the world are facing today. We are now offering a synchronous option where students meet as a group with the course teacher via video conferencing at a set time each week. Students are required to stream videos contained within the course content, download assignments, and upload their assignments within Moodle.

Students will need to borrow or purchase two novels. This online, Synchronous module of English 9 begins by helping the students to connect to stories from around the world, and hearing about some of the challenges that people around the world are facing today. Specifically this course is built to support students heading into Workplace Math 10, followed by Workplace Math The content and skills in this course are generally consistent with expectations at the grade 9 math level. Mathematics 9 builds upon the fundamental course work in previous years by exploring more complex arithmetic related to the topics of financial literacy, rational numbers, and proportional reasoning. It introduces and explores newer these topics: exponents, polynomials, linear relations, linear equations and statistics.

As math education develops beyond the fundamental operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, the concepts and skills become more complex and conceptual. As such, Mathematics 9 will give students a solid foundation for these deeper algebraic and abstract ideas. Financial Literacy - Students build upon their basic understanding of money but exploring topics like budgets and balance sheets, while also learning the basics of simple and complex interest. Exponents - This unit introduces the concept of exponents as it relates to both numerical values and algebraic values. The chapter explores the important rules of how to use exponents in various mathematical contexts. Polynomials - This chapter introduces the concept of the polynomial and how it is defined.

It explores how polynomials can be manipulated to combine like terms as well as using the application of the distribution property. Rational Numbers — This chapter explores the fundamental mathematical operations but using any and all rational numbers including negative numbers, fractions and decimals. Linear Relations — This chapter introduces the concept of the Cartesian coordinate plane and how to plot points in two-dimensions. I dare.

If nothing else, why has no enterprising company sold facemasks with the bottom-half of our faces printed on the front? You send in a photo of your face and the masks arrive displaying your smile High-End Loudness Control Let us think back to happier times. When your father or grandfather wanted to play his new stereo-demo LP at a moderate sound level, he switched on the loudness switch on his receiver, filling the room with balanced sound, albeit at a lower volume level. Today, we turn down the volume and resulting sound falls short, sounding thin and eviscerated. Why so?

We do not have a loudness control. Somewhere around , audio puritans denounced the loudness control as being audio-impure, along with all other tone controls, which only mid-fi listeners would desire and use. A big mistake this was, as a high-quality loudness control would make for much more enjoyable listening. Too-Loud Loudness Compensation Not just Wallace Simpson aka Duchess of Windsor , but many hold to the belief that one can never be too thin or too rich. Well, for many audiophiles, music playback can never be too loud. Indeed, for non-audiophiles, an audiophile is someone who is hard of hearing that happens to be also rich Music Recommendation: Estonian Incantations 1 I have listened to many albums with the Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, but I have never sought out their albums in particular.

Recently, I did seek their albums out at Amazon Music. Plenty albums showed up for my sampling. I choose the album, Estonian Incantations 1. This is not your father's classical album, unless he listened to Leonard Bernstein's MASS —many did, in the early 70s, although it generally received bad reviews. What am I getting at? Speaker Diffraction Loss While writing my last post, and while looking at the first of the two passive RIAA equalization networks, the shelving network that boost the lows below 50Hz by 20dB and then fell off at 50Hz before flattening at Hz, I noticed an exact ratio between the two resistors in the shelving network This was not the case five years ago, when it seemed that all everyone was interested in was building a better DAC, usually with post tube sweetening Music Recommendation: Crime Of The Century While waiting in a local sandwich shop, I listen to music hits from the s pour from the ceiling speakers.

My pleasure restrained by my fear that the under-twenty workers must feel oppressed by this music, preferring as they must something more modern, something trendier. As I collect my roast-beef sandwich, I mention the music to the young man. He loves it; the radio station is his choice. Amazingly enough, he revels in s music. Mind-boggling—well at least my mind boggled At the time, I owned bi-amped, home-built loudspeakers that held a Hz crossover frequency. The speaker was a two-way design with an Audex 6-inch polypropylene woofer with a cast frame in an insanely over-built sealed enclosure, whose walls were 2. The motive is to exclude the resistor cathode from the AC signal path, which now includes only the output transformer, the output tube, and the bypass capacitor that completes the circle Music Recommendation: The Naxos classical-music label should be far better known and appreciated than it is.

Many, if not most, of their efforts are beautifully recorded and their CDs cost less than other more famous labels. Over the years, I have bought many of their box sets and have loved the music and the price. Well, when I saw that Naxos had released a collection of hitherto unrecorded music by one of the composers that interests me greatly—Villa-Lobos, the Brazilian composer, conductor, cellist, and classical guitarist—I had to listen to it Loudspeakers Loudspeakers constantly come to mind—well, to my mind.

Loudspeakers need the most help. With just cause, loudspeakers are identified as a stereo system's weakest link, not amplifiers or cables or DACs or equipment stands or power AC filters Crossover Thoughts If a loudspeaker holds more than one driver, it will need a passive crossover to divide the audio band of frequencies between the drivers. As soon as I finished writing the previous sentence, I thought of exceptions; for example, we could use two fullrange drivers, one facing forward and one facing rearward for bi-pole design.

Even this design, however, would need a shared Zobel network. Three-Way Crossover Woes Textbooks inform us that three-way crossovers do not work—not even 1st-order three-way crossovers. Neither the parallel nor the series 1st-order crossover yields a flat impedance or a flat frequency response Often, I am the sole source, which seems to trouble them, as a common viewpoint is that no new tube topology is possible, all topological development ending about 70 years ago The album bridges American jazz with African music, with a healthy dollop of church music mixed in.

All the tracks are varied, some with singer accompaniment, including his own wife on the first track Thus, I set about making a SPICE curve tracer and I took the resulting plate curves and overlaid them upon a set of curves from an actual curve tracer Another Split-Load Phase Splitter Version After making my last post, I had this haunting feeling that I forgot to include another version of the split-load phase splitter that delivered equal and in-phase PSRR from both outputs.

I went hunting. If we include the SPICE circuits living on USB sticks and my main computer and the few hundred that I have lost due to hard-drive deaths, the total must be well over 5, Well, I found a more complicated version of what I sought. Since the circuit is somewhat complicated, we will work our way up to it AnTec output Transformers Over the last two decades, I have bought many toroidal power transformers from AnTek ; and over the last three decades, I have bought many aluminum enclosures from AnTec's sister company, Metal. Fairly recently, AnTek has offered output transformers for tube-based power amplifiers, with push-pull output transformers that range from 10W to W and a 30W single-ended output transformer.

All are flat toroidal designs and the prices are more than reasonable. The transformers that interested me most are the 10W and 15W, as they offer the most extended high-frequency output I believe that this album was mention in a review of another album that was deemed to fall short of it; thus, my efforts to seek out the better album. Domador de Huellas literally means "the tamer of the footprints. It worked. As far as I know, I had made all the solder joints. It certainly played loud enough. There was too much resistor noise for my taste, but the white-noise hiss is fairly easy to ignore. Next week, the preamp will meet another system with an equally low-output moving coil phono cartridge This is a tad unfortunate, as the design is a very clever two-switch combination of stepped shunt and series attenuators that delivered 66 steps of attenuation, the result of using 6-position and position rotary switches.

What it didn't produce, however, was a flat input impedance, the result of using the shunt portion of the attenuator. Well, a potential customer asked when it would be back in stock. My answer was possibly never, as the new gold-contact Attn-2 stereo stepped attenuator works perfectly as a mono balanced stepped attenuator with 66 steps of attenuation A high CMRR ensures that signals shared in common are ignored; noise is usually a common-mode signal. The two easy ways to achieve a high CMRR is to use either an input signal transformer or a constant-current source with a differential amplifier input stage Conclusion So, is this last circuit the best design?

Remember, something is only best in relation to some goal or task. For example, an antiaircraft gun will kill a housefly, but it is not the best means of doing so. Using only two tubes per channel is a huge feature and offering a low differential output impedance is also a huge feature when it comes to driving high-impedance headphones Lateef was an amazing American jazz musician, composer, novelist, businessman, college professor, and purveyor of "World Music" before it had the name. His Ph. D dissertation was a comparative study of Western and Islamic music education.

He played too many instruments to list, but was best known for his saxophone and flute playing. The first was a silkscreen error on the bottom of the PCB where the positive and negative sign on the heater pads are reversed. This typo can cause a blown capacitor, as the heaters are shunted with a large, low-ESR capacitor. Fortunately, the fix was easy enough: just use a Q-tip dipped in acetone to remove the polarity signs Cynosure Resistor and Aikido Cascode The best way to achieve power-supply noise nulls is not with tight-tolerance capacitors, but with tight-tolerance resistors, as tight-tolerance resistors are both plentiful and cheap, whereas tight-tolerance capacitors are neither.

In addition, we can use a potentiometer, but not a variable capacitor. Here is an example of a 6DJ8-based Aikido cascode that uses two tight-tolerance capacitors Cynosure Split-Load Phase Splitter I am building a push-pull, tube-based, stereo integrated power amplifier, so phase splitters have been on my mind. Unless a balanced input signal is provided, push-pull power tube-based amplifiers require a phase splitter to drive their output stages. This is true for both OTL and transformer-coupled push-pull tube-based power amplifiers My goal was to reduce the voltage differential between the input grounded-cathode amplifier's heater and the phase splitter's cathode, while still maintaining an equal and in-phase PSRR from both phase splitter outputs Cynosure Paraphase Phase Splitter The paraphase phase splitter is the pairing of a grounded-cathode amplifier and an anode follower, the latter of which is setup for unity-gain inverted output.

In England, it is known as the paraphrase phase splitter. It has made several appearances in previous posts, such as post and Last year during the pandemic, American female singer Morgan James created two albums with only her husband, Doug Wamble, playing acoustic guitar for accompaniment he sings with her on the Islands in the Stream track ; do not worry, as he is a gifted jazz guitarist MC Phono Preamp—Tube-Based After a month of thinking about tube-based moving-coil pre-preamps, I began to wonder if this trip was really necessary.

No, I wasn't thinking about step-up transformers or higher-output phono cartridges. Why not just build a phono preamp with enough gain to run a low-output MC cartridge, say, one with a gain of 60dB? This task would be easy enough with solid-state devices, but tubes require much more care and consideration If we pause to think about it, we soon realize that we ask an awful lot of the simple SRPP circuit, as it is expected to provide signal gain and phase splitting, and push-pull operation capable of delivering close to twice the idle current into an external load resistance.

Music Recommendation: High-Res Singers I was searching Amazon Music streaming service for high-resolution albums, when it hit me: I was doing it backwards. I should have been searching high-resolution music websites and finding the overlap between the website's catalog and Amazon Music's catalog. I listened to a friend's MC cartridge with 40dB tube-based phono stage of mine.

With the line-stage amplifier at full gain, the music played—played amazing well, in fact—but was too noisy. Either a step-up transformer or an active pre-preamp with a 20dB would have made all the difference. Later that day, I filled out two pages in my sketchpad with circuits More Electrostatic Loudspeaker Ideas Post mentioned Harold Beveridge's amazing electrostatic loudspeaker design, which is unique in that he drove both the stators and the diaphragm, using two OTL amplifiers.

In the overwhelming majority of electrostatic speakers, the diaphragm passively sits between two driven stators, biased to a high-voltage through a many mega-ohm resistor, pushed forward and backward by the developing electrostatic forces Electrostatic Speakers with Wire Stators Be prepared to be mightily impressed. Mercy, doe she have amazing woodworking skills. Not only is Charlie a big advocate for wire stators, he has developed some truly interesting designs that use a segmented stators to tailor the high-frequency radiation, concentrating at the center of the tall diaphragm I don't, sadly. The Balancer design offer gain and balanced outputs.

This question, however, brought back memories from 30 years ago. A high-end audio company had major problems with a no-gain phase splitter that a genius tube guru had designed for them. My first question was why would anyone need a unity-gain phase splitter? More Crazy Speaker Ideas In the last post , we saw an electrodynamic planar loudspeaker that held no magnets, just a large solenoid. Well, how about using electromagnets instead? The dynamic loudspeaker is almost years old invented in and most speakers back then held a field-coil to create an electromagnet—up until WWII, when lighter, powerful magnets were developed.

The field-coil often doubled as the choke in the power amplifier's power supply. In other words, speakers with electromagnets are nothing new. What I am proposing is that planar speaker be built Bipole Electrostatic Speaker First, some electrostatic basics: electrostatic loudspeakers sandwich three key parts, the diaphragm in the center, and a stator on each side of the diaphragm. The stators are electrically conductive and are acoustically porous due to holes or gaps in their surface: for example, perforated-sheet-metal or wire screen or many sheathed wires in parallel. Each stator receives a high-voltage audio signal, with the stators driven in anti-phase to each other Magnetostatic Electromagnetic Loudspeakers I hate the word, "magnetostatic," as it just confuses things.

I prefer the adjectives, "electromagnetic" or "electro-dynamic," when describing planar loudspeakers such as the famous Magnepan speakers, which hold many bar magnets and a low-resistance diaphragm More on MC Pre-preamp I have been giving some more thought to the idea of a tube-based moving-coil cartridge pre-preamp. For example, here is a variation with three 6DJ8 tubes per channel Music Recommendation: Offertorium The path I took to find this album was circuitous in the extreme, which is so typical of any music hunt at either Tidal or Amazon Music. Just the other day, I asked my son if he knew the word, "divagate.

Cummings poetry. Reading his poetry is difficult; listening to it being read, a delight. The results were tiny, sadly. I did, however, find quite a bit of T. Eliot's poetry In addition, it allowed me to try out the new Attn-2 in an actual piece of audio gear. Hard Constant-Current Sources A constant-current source is a current limiter or current regulator that freely allows the flow of current, but only up to a set limit. It is a practicable version of an ideal constant-current source, which would be something like a special battery that delivered a fixed current flow, not a fixed voltage; in other words, it would deliver a steady current flow regardless of the voltage-drop required.

For example, an ideal 1mA constant-current source would develop 1kV across a 1M resistor and 1V across a 1k resistor and 1mV across a 1-ohm resistor. In contrast, a battery strives to deliver a fixed DC voltage regardless of the current flow, be it only 1mA or 1A or 1kA He is not alone. Moving-coil cartridges are seldom plug-'n-play. I own a moving-coil cartridge, but it is a high-output Dynavector 10x5 Mk2 that delivers close to 3mV of output, so I have no problems using 40dB phono stages.

The only concession I had to make was using a 10k load resistor rather than 47k. Most of my friends who run low-output moving-coil cartridges use step-up transformers, not active pre-preamps, although most have tried active gain stages before. Does this mean that transformers are intrinsically better? No, not necessarily Yes, they do exist and they are well worth hearing. One example is Peter Sculthorpe, whose Requiem I found quite interesting and compelling. I noticed Brett Dean's name on the lists of Australian composers worth checking out; justly so, it turns out Vinyl I have been spinning LPs. I needed to do so, as I was working on an old phono preamp of mine. As the LP filled the room with music, I could not fail to note how different the listening experience was to digital playback.

Records demand our attention. We must first perform the usual preparations, such as LP cleaning, neutralizing static, needle scouring, and lowering the tonearm. Once the music emerges, we remain attentive to sound, listening for ticks, pops, and scratches—and something like live music More Infinite-Z Amplifiers In post , we saw two power amplifiers working in cascade—not in series, but one amplifier's output cascading into another through a resistor.

If the two amplifiers shared the same gain, not much would be accomplished—but with differing gains, magic takes place. The amplifier at the bottom of the cascade enjoys the amazing advantage, however, of not having to deliver any current into the loudspeaker; thus, the speaker's impedance effectively appears as infinite. Well, since writing that post, I have given the arrangement some more thought Infinite-Z Hybrid Headphone Amplifiers Since writing post , the idea of actually building a hybrid infinite-Z headphone amplifier has gripped me.

One subtlety that I failed to consider was the importance of the output impedance, i. Infinite-Z Amplifier Meets Triadtron While pondering how to achieve the lowest output impedance from a tube-based headphone amplifier, one topology that came to mind that offered an intrinsically-low output impedance was the Triadtron The huge advantage to using two identical amplifiers is that they both share identical frequency and phase responses He probably would have won it, had he not won the award in for his album, The Offense of the Drum Subwoofer Ideas As a teenager, I owned and built several subwoofers.

Some were surprisingly good, which was primarily due to their cabinets, robust and super-thick-walled, never less than 1. In addition, my brother and I bought wood screws by the Great Gross a dozen gross, i. Single Subwoofers with Two Amplifiers Since class-D stereo power amplifiers are both readily available and cheap, why not use one in a powered subwoofer? We could double up on big 4-ohm woofers, so the subwoofer's maximum SPL would increase by 6dB. Something less obvious might be to create a bi-amped subwoofer, which would hold two woofers, say, a inch and an 8-inch driver Subwoofers in the Corners I once saw an ad for a subwoofer that made the claim that the best location for a subwoofer is the corner of the room. The ad claimed that the corner not only permits the greatest coupling of the subwoofer to air, but ensures that the wave-front leaving the subwoofer hits our ears first before its reflections arrive Differential Amplifiers and Crossovers In post , we saw Richard Small's outline of an active four-way crossover that cascaded three low-pass filters and then used three differential amplifiers to extract the top three signal outputs Music Recommendation: Dreamers This was an easy recommendation to make, as the album delivers both artistic content and sonic splendor.

Thus, the album straddles the two genres of Jazz and Classical Small on the topic of crossover design. I had only distant and faint memories of this article, which was a dang tragedy, albeit a small tragedy, as his paper could have saved me much recent mental effort Shifting Loudspeaker Crossovers Shifting is fun. Well, what if loudspeaker crossovers allowed shifting? What would we shift? Two possibilities are frequency and slope I found it at Amazon Music Service. Oh yeah, this is one fine album. The recording is first-rate and Will Liverman's baritone singing is exemplary Is there a compelling reason for not pursuing this? Regulators and Resistor Band-Aids Here is a topic seldom seen: adding a power resistor to either a series or shunt regulator to soak up excess dissipation Pure-Tube Shunt Regulator Many view solid-state and hybrid designs with disdain.

Indeed, many view indirectly heated cathodes as cheating. Well, we can build an all-tube high-voltage shunt regulator. What all voltage regulators require is a voltage reference, a negative feedback mechanism, and a pass device. Hybrid Shunt Regulator Hybrid designs hope to realize the best of the two technologies: the vacuum tube's robustness in the face of high-voltage and the solid-state device's low noise and high gain. In fact, I usually test with an OpAmp that is both slow and cheap first; then, I progressively upgrade the OpAmp until I encounter problems. I, too, had bought some badly warped LPs, mostly Jamaican reggae imports, but I was sure he was exaggerating, as only one in twenty LPs was egregiously warped, not the half he claimed.

When I saw his cartridge and tonearm undergo seizures, however, over the slightest departure from perfect flat, I understood what was going on instantly. I pointed either he needed either a different cartridge or a different tonearm, as his combination was completely incompatible, as high-compliance cartridges like his demanded light tonearms, not massive ones like his. Of course, he thought I was completely wrong, crazy wrong, as both cartridge and tonearm had gotten rave reviews I was hunting through my old SPICE circuits for a certain phono stage and I found a circuit I created long ago that just too interesting not to share.

My goal in designing this phono stage was a relatively low plate voltage, not rumble filtering. No totem-pole or cascode structures. No large valued plate resistor values. The solution was found in the two-triode feedback pair, with each triode loaded by constant-current source Music Recommendation: Totem No doubt many have discerned my love of Euro Jazz, which often sounds like American Jazz infused with the European classical-music tradition. Well, Italian bassist and composer Ferdinando Romano furthers blurring the line that separates jazz from classical music in his album Totem Everyone says, "Thank God is over.

Since I have more posts to create, I have to get to work Hybrid HPA with Howland Current Pump I ended my last post on a bi-amped amplifier with the observation that electrodynamic planar loudspeakers and headphones, due to their ruler-flat impedance, would make the best fit with a hybrid amplifier that used a conventional voltage-out amplifier, either a tube-based or solid-state design, along with a solid-state Howland current pump circuit to provide most of the current delivery What was missing was a bottom plate and four rubber feet. No more. Since this SRPP hybrid headphone amplifier doesn't generate all that much heat compared to my many other tube-based headphone amplifiers, one of which required a fan , I decided not to perforate the bottom panel Transformer-Coupled MOSFET Output Stages After writing about how class-D amplifiers could be built into a tube-based power amplifier in my last post, I wondered about an alternative approach, one that exploited the existing high-voltage power supply used by the tube-based output stage.

In other words, rather than use two power supplies, a high-voltage one for the tubes and a low-voltage one for the class-D amplifier, we could use just the single high-voltage power supply with a MOSFET-based power amplifier Music Recommendation: Quietly There Alison Neale plays a wonderfully delicate alto saxophone on this album, reminding me of the jazz greats from the s and s, such as Art Pepper and Paul Desmond. This is an album that those who don't like jazz will still like.

I discovered it when Amazon Music recommended it as being the sort of music I seem to like. They were right I was right, I could—only because so much of it was already assembled. In the last post , we saw the solid-state headphone amplifier that James had sent me Bi-Amped Amplifiers? We are going full Gedankenexperiment, i. In other words, I can offer no absolute solution or design, only my deliberations and reflections. By the way before we get started, let's review some history. Although Albert Einstein made the word "Gedankenexperiment" deservedly famous, he wasn't the first to use the word A sentence I never thought that I would write.

Nothing sticks into your ears, yet a big sound results. If I actually wore sunglasses, I might even think about buying them. If you haven't heard them, you should give them a listen I called it in March! Dogs that do not bark. Note that Africa, with a huge Chinese presence and the weakest health-care systems, has gone relatively virus free. How's that possible? I remember seeing a map of the populations with the highest amount of Neanderthal genes Music Recommendation: Grace We tend to use up singers; I know that I have, so I am always on the search for new singers to hear.

I had heard of the 40 year-old singer Lizz Wright, but I had never heard her sing. This failing was righted recently. Wow, really impressive. Her voice is often likened to Norah Jones'. Well, maybe, but I don't hear it. To me, her powerful voice drips of spiritual s, gospel, church choirs, and the South. Nina Simone would seem a better match than Jones. SRPP Harmonic Restoration Circuit The world's favorite tube circuit finds a new application: harmonic restoration, the purposeful introduction of harmonic distortion to enrich thin or odd-ordered tonality. Not all distortion counts, only the right sort. For example, we won't accept any hum or buzz or hiss, only the natural linear cascade of harmonics produced so famously by single-end and class-A, push-pull amplifiers.

The goal is to undo some of the thinning and washing-out effects of signal processing More No-Gain, No Pain Just a few decades ago, high gain was considered a feature in a line-stage amplifier, with tube-based line amplifiers routinely boasting as much as 30dB of gain Today, however, most signal sources put out more than enough output signal to drive most power amplifiers to full power output, as most power amplifiers require no more than 1Vpk to achieve full output and most DACs put out 2Vpk. Thus, I have made my recommendation of just 12dB worth of gain for most line-stage amplifiers The negative power-supply rail would power both the DC servo and heat the triode's heater. I also envisioned making use of the regulated Vdc power-supply rail voltage as a free voltage reference Having long ago exhausted all his novels save for Ada , whose list of hundreds of Russian names seemed just too daunting and his books of lectures and autobiography, I have been thirsting for more Vladimir Nabokov for many years now.

Amazon was kind enough to point out that a recent collection of his uncollected essays, reviews, interviews, and letters to the editor was out, titled, Think, Write, Speak As far as I know, this was where class-H amplifiers began. Cathode-follower operation means several things: low distortion, low output impedance, and huge input signals How cheap? The stereo amplifier runs off a 36V switcher power supply. In contrast, high-quality loudspeaker crossover inductors and capacitors needed for a woofer crossover cost far more More Passive Crossovers Loudspeaker crossovers not only divide frequencies, but they themselves divide into several categories.

The most obvious topological division is between parallel and series crossovers Sadly, this was Svensson's last album prior to his death in a diving accident in Class-G and Class-H Spies, Soviet spies in particular, were given to interpretation, the analysis and appraisal of what their espionage uncovered. This habit drove their controllers back in Moscow crazy My son recently asked who is the current best Beethoven-piano interpreters. My list included Lewis, which prompted me to see what Amazon Music streaming service had to offer Although I made that post last February, my memory said it must be years older. No doubt, many also feel as I do that this year—paradoxically enough—has gone on forever and that it hasn't actually begun yet.

As I looked the circuit over, I saw much that needs updating If you run a square-wave or a tone burst through a 1st-order crossover, then a square-wave or a tone burst comes out, due to the crossover's phase-flat output. The only problem is getting away with it, as the 1st-order's attenuation slopes are relatively weak, coming in at only -6dB per octave and dB per decade Four-Way 1st-Order Crossovers A four driver loudspeaker offers an easy solution to the problem of sluggish woofers and frail tweeters, as we can cascade the filters so both the woofer and tweeter see slopes that begin as -6dB-per-octave then increase to dB-per-octave, while the two middle drivers see 1st-order slopes throughout Five-Way Crossovers Yes, five-way loudspeakers are rare; but if we include four-way loudspeakers that use a separate subwoofer, they are less rare.

Many possible arrangements come to mind. We could cascade entirely in favor of the tweeter or entirely in favor of the woofer—a choice between tweeter safety and midrange clarity. The arrangement that appeals to me most is the one wherein both the woofer and tweeter receive cascaded crossover slopes, while the remaining middle drivers all see 1st-order slopes throughout. Let's start with no cascading crossover frequencies Six-Way Crossovers Five crossover frequencies does seem excessive. In fact, although I am sure that six-way loudspeakers are made, I don't remember seeing any.

If we start at a low enough frequency, however, we can get five crossover frequencies that seem to make sense. What tickles me about a six-way loudspeaker is all the various possible crossover configurations A dang pity, as it is a fun listen. I have used thier album, In Love , as a test CD since it came out. The test is interesting: I listen to solid-state amplifiers try to produce an unanoying reproduction when playing it. Most fail. Some spectatcularily so. In contrast, tube amplifers from the s have passed the test beautifully. About 35 years ago, he was kind enough to indulge my interrogation for over an hour, between the talks he was giving at a high-end audio salon Here is the quick summery from Analog Devices Yes, the primary will experience huge voltage swings, but as the output stage runs in strict class-A, the average voltage drop equals the idle voltage drop IMC for Headphones A few months ago, I received a request from a long-time reader, Dan, for an IMC impedance-multiplier circuit for his Aikido-based headphone amplifier that was setup to drive ohm headphones.

Dan wanted to drive some lower-impedance headphones, such as the ohm types made by Grado and others. He had seen the discrete-transistor design post and wondered if an OpAmp could not be used instead Music Recommendation: Linn Records I remember being thrilled by the sound quality of recordings from Linn Records , as they were often showcased in demo rooms at audio salons and audio shows. I wondered if Amazon Music HD streaming service offered any of them, although I was fairly confident that they wouldn't. I was, happily, wrong. Sidewinder Hybrid Power Amplifier I was going through a box filled with old and odd loose sheets of paper.

Most of it was old advertising material, the type that used to be mailed out to those in the electronics industry. For most of my life, I had a love, hate, hate, hate relationship with junk mail, as I enjoyed getting about a fourth of it. I like reading white-papers on new IC designs; and fat catalogs filled with electronic components were even more interesting to me than the occasional Victoria Secret flyer. In the foot-tall pile, I found a Xerox i. Polarized 4th-Order Crossover In my last post, we saw how to polarize the capacitors in a speaker's crossover. I showed 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order crossovers, but failed to show a polarized 4th-order crossover First of all, the LR crossover alignment only applies to even-order crossovers; thus, there are no 1st or 3rd order LR crossovers.

The 4th-order LR crossover functions much like the 2nd-order LR crossover, as both drivers are down -6dB at the crossover frequency, so they sum to unity; it differs in that it requires that both drivers are in phase Each brought his or her own signature to playing the cello. For example, Mischa Maisky is the cellist that can beat up your cellist, as he can thunder when needed Loudspeaker Crossovers with Polarized Capacitors Two events prompted to write on this topic..

Yes, I know it sounds like voodoo, but it is consistent voodoo. In addition, super expensive loudspeakers often hold a hidden battery pack or connection to a power supply, the latter often being used to power the built-in subwoofer Crowhurst Phase Splitter In the last post, we saw the article that Norman Crowhurst had written for audiocraft magazine in the s. I thought that his careful explication of how each part value was derived was worth reading, as many falsely imagine that the values are either entirely arbitrary or are revealed only by inspiration.

Of course, the truth is that an underlying logic dictates the part values Paraphase Phase Splitter While on the topic of the paraphase phase splitters, we should quickly look at the more conventional paraphase circuit. I experimented with this phase splitter early on and quickly abandoned it, as it suffered from poor balance between outputs, differing frequency bandwidths, and poor PSRR The switch is a three-position toggle with an on-off-on structure. In the middle position, the off position, the amplifier sees a 1st-order Hz high-pass filter, which proves useful with subwoofers. In the up position, the amplifier sees a DC connection to the signal source, allowing full bandwidth output.

And in the down position, the amplifier is muted, which allows us to switch interconnects or line-stage amplifiers without having to shut-down the power amplifier

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